DM: Carbohydrates (2001)
Nutrition Practice Guidelines for Type 1 and 2 Diabetes: Carbohydrates (2001)
Foods containing carbohydrates from whole grains, fruits, vegetables and low fat milk should be included in a healthy diet. The total amount of carbohydrate consumed at meals and snacks influences the postmeal glucose response to a greater extent than other macronutrients. There is a direct relationship between the amount of carbohydrate in a meal, postmeal blood glucose response and premeal rapid- or short- acting insulin requirements to maintain desirable blood glucose goals. Individuals receiving intensive insulin therapy can adjust the premeal insulin dose based on the amount of carbohydrate at meals to maintain blood glucose goals. The type and amount of carbohydrate in diets of individuals with type 2 diabetes needs to be individualized based on the lipid profile and type of diabetes medications. Some studies have shown short-term improvements in glycemic control by incorporating high-fiber, low glycemic index foods in meals and /or snacks. (2001)
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
- High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
- Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
- Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
- Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
- Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.
Evidence Summary: Type 1 and 2 Diabetes: Carbohydrates (2001)
- Quality Rating Summary
For a summary of the Quality Rating results, click here.
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- Jarvi AE, Karlstrom BE, Granfeldt YE, Bjorck IE, Asp NGL, Vessby BOH. Improved glycemic control and lipid profile and normalized fibrinolytic activity on a low glycemic index diet in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 1999; 22: 10-18.
- Parillo M, Giacco R, Ciardullo AV, Rivellese AA, Riccardi G. Does a high-carbohydrate diet have different effects in NIDDM patients treated with diet alone or hypoglycemic drugs. Diabetes Care. 1996;19:498-500.
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- Wolever TMS, Hamad S, Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Rodger NW, Ross SA, Ryan EA. Day-to-day consistency in amount and source of carbohydrate intake associated with improved glucose control in type 1 diabetes. J Amer Coll Nutr. 1999;18:242-247.
- Wolever TMS, Nguyen PM, Chiasson JL, Hunt JA, Josse RG, Palmason C, Rodger NW, Ross SA, Ryan EA, Tan MH. Determinants of diet glycemic index calculated retrospectively from diet records of 342 individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:1265-1269.