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Chronic Kidney Disease

CKD: References (2010)

 

References used in this guideline are listed within each recommendation, see the Major Recommendations section.

To view references included and excluded from this evidence analysis, view the Criteria and Results for Specific Topics.

 CKD Recommendations:

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Medical Nutrition Therapy (Non-Dialysis)

Chauveau P, Vendrely B, Haggan E W, Barthe N, Rigalleau V, Combe C, Aparicio M. Body composition of patients on a very-low-protein diet: A two-year survey with DEXA. J.Ren. Nutr. 2003; 13 (4): 282-287.

Cliffe M, Bloodworth LLO, Jibani MM. Can malnutrition in predialysis patients be prevented by dietetic intervention? J Renal Nutr. 2001; 11: 161-165.

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

Delahanty LM. Implications of the diabetes control and complications trial for renal outcomes and medical nutrition therapy. J Renal Nutr. 1998; 8: 59-63.

Dolecek TA, Olson MB, Caggiula AW, Dwyer JT, Milas NC, Gillis BP, Hartman JA, DiChiro JT. Registered dietitian time requirements in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995;95:1307-1312.

Milas NC, Nowalk MP, Akpele L, Castaldo L, Coyne T, Doroshenko L, Kigawa L, Korzec-Ramirez D, Scherch LK, Snetselaar L. Factors associated with adherence to the dietary protein intervention in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995; 95:1295-1300.

Moore H, Reams SM, Wiesen K, Nolph KD, Khanna R, Laothong C, National Kidney Foundation Council on Renal Nutrition. National Kidney Foundation Council on Renal Nutrition Survey: Past-present clinical practices and future strategic planning. J Ren Nutr. 2003; 13(3): 233-240.

Pijls LTJ, de Vries H, Donker AJM, van Eijk JTM. The effect of protein restriction on albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1999; 14: 1445-1453.

Pijls LTJ, de Vries H, van Eijk JThM, Donker AJM. Adherence to protein restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000; 54:347-352.

Prakash S, Pande DP, Sharma S, Sharma D, Bal CS, Kulkarni H. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of ketodiet in predialytic chronic renal failure. J Renal Nutr. 2004; 14: 89-96.

Wardak J, Glabska D, Narojek L, Rojek-Trebicka J. Analysis of the intake of protein and energy by predialysis patients with chronic renal failure receiving essential amino acid ketoanalogues. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2007; 58(1): 153-158.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Assessment

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Assessment of Food/Nutrition-Related History

References Not Graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Anthropometric Assessment Options

Avesani CM, Draibe SA, Kamimura MA, Cendoroglo M, Pedrosa A, Castro ML, Cuppari L.A. Assessment of body composition by dua energy X-ray absorptiometry, skinfold thickness and creatinine kinetics in chronic kidney disease patients. Neprhol Dial Transplant. 2004; 19: 2289-2295.

Barreto Silva MI, Avesani CM, Vale B, Lemos C, Bregman R. Agreement between anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance for measuring body fat in nonobese and obese nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients. J Ren Nutr. 2008; 18(4): 355-362.

Bellizi V, Scalfi L, Terraciano V, De Nicola L, Minutolo R, Marra M, Guida B, Cianciaruso B, Conte G, Di Iorio BR. Early changes in bioelectrical estimates of body composition in chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006; 17: 1481-1487.

Heimburger O, Quereshi AR, Blaner WS, Berglund L, Stenvinkel P. Hand-grip muscle strength, lean body mass, and plasma proteins as markers of nutritional status in patients with chronic renal failure close to start of dialysis therapy. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000; 36(6): 1,213-1,225.

Rigalleau V, Lasseur C, Chauveau P, Barthes N, Raffaitin C, Combe C, Perlemoine C, Baillet-Blanco L, Gin H. Body composition in diabetic subjects with chronic kidney disease: Interest of bio-impedance analysis, and anthropometry. Ann Nur Metab. 2004; 48: 409-413.

Sanches MR, Avesani CM, Kamimura MA, Lemaos MM, Axelsson J, Vasselai P, Draibe SA, Cuppari L. Waist circumference and visceral fat in CKD: A cross-sectional study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008; 52: 66-73.

Woodrow G, Oldroyd B, Smith MA, Turney JH. Measurement of body composition in chronic renal failure: Comparison of skinfold anthropometrhy and bioelectrical impedance with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996; 50: 295-301.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

  • Caravaca F, Arrobas M, Pizarro JL, Sanchez-Casado E. Uraemic symptoms, nutritional status and renal function in pre-dialysis end-stage renal failure patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001; 16: 776-782.
  • Goldstein DJ, Callahan C. Strategies for nutritional intervention in patients with renal failure. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1998; 24: 82-91.
  • Harvey KS. Methods for determining healthy body weight in end stage renal disease. J Ren Nutr. 2006;16(3): 269-276.
  • Kaizu, Y, Tsunega, Y, Yoneyama, T, et al. Overweight as another nutritional risk factor for the long-term survival of non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol. 1998;50: 44-50.
  • Kalantar-Zadeh K, Block G, Humphreys MH, Kopple JD. Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2003; 63:793-808.
  • Kopple JD, Greene T, Chumlea WC, Hollinger D, Maroni BJ, Merrill D, Scherch LK, Shulman G, Wang S-R, Zimmer GS. Relationship between nutritional status and the glomerular filtration rate: results from the MDRD Study. Kidney Int. 2000; 57: 1, 688-1, 703.
  • Kopple JD, Berg R, Houser H, Steinman TI, Teschan P. Nutritional status of patients with different levels of chronic renal insufficiency. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study Group. Kidney Int. 1989; 36 (suppl 27): S184-S194.
  • Kopple JD, Zhu X, Lew NL, et al. Body weight-for-height relationships predict mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 1999. 56:1136-1148.
  • Leavey SF, McCullough KP, Hecking E, Goodkin DA, Port FK, Young EW. Body mass index and mortality in healthier as compared wtih sicker haemodialysis patients: results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2001;16(12): 2386-2394.
  • McCann L. (ed). Pocket Guide to Nutrition Assessment of the Patient with Chronic Kidney Disease, 4th Edition. New York, NY: 2009.
  • Mitch WE. Mechanisms causing muscle wasting in uremia. J Renal Nutr. 1996; 6: 75-78.
  • National Kidney Foundation KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines are accessible at the following link: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/
  • Guideline 23 (Panels of Nutrition Measures for Non-Dialyzed Patients): http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_updates/nut_a23.html
  • Appendix VI (Methods for Performing Subjective Global Assessment): http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_updates/nut_appx06a.html
  • Appendix VII (Methods for Performing Anthropometry and Calculating Body Measurements and Reference Tables): http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_updates/nut_appx07a.html.

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Assessment of Biochemical Parameters

 

 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Assess CKD-Mineral and Bone Disorders

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Assessment of Medical/Health History

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Intervention 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Protein Intake

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

 National Kidney Foundation KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines are accessible at the following link:http://www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/

Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure:http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_updates/nut_a23.html

Bone Metabolism and Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease:http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_bone/index.htm

Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease:http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_anemia/index.htm

 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Energy Intake

Kuhlmann U, Schwickardi M, Trebst R, Lange H. Resting metabolic rate in chronic renal failure. J Renal Nutr 2001; 11:202-206.

Monteon FJ, Laidlaw SA, Shaib JK, Kopple JD. Energy expenditure in patients with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int. 1986; 30: 741-747.

Bastani B, Robinson S, Heisler T, Puntney G, Aridge D, Lindsey L, Solomon H, Garvin PJ. Post-transplant hyperlipidemia: Risk factors and response to dietary modification and gemfibrozil therapy. Clin Transplantation.1995; 9: 340-348.

Teplan V, Schuck O, Stollova M, Vitko S. Obesity and hyperhomocysteinuria after kidney transplantation. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003; 18(suppl 5): 71-73.

Bernhard J, Beaufrere B, Laville M, Fouque D. Adaptive response to a low-protein diet in predialysis chronic renal failure patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12:1249-1254.

Chauveau P, Barthe N, Rigalleau V, Ozenne S, Castaing F, Delclaux C, De Precigout V, Combe C, Aparaicio M. Outcome of nutritional status and body composition of uremic patients on a very low protein diet. Am J Kidney Dis. 1999; 34 (3): 500-507.

Chauveau P, Vendrely B, Haggan E W, Barthe N, Rigalleau V, Combe C, Aparicio M. Body composition of patients on a very-low-protein diet: A two-year survey with DEXA. J.Ren. Nutr. 2003; 13 (4): 282-287.

Feiten SF, Draibe SA, Watanabe R, Duenhas MR, Baxmann AC, Nerbass FB, Cuppari L. Short-term effects of a very-low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59:129-136.

Fouque D, Wang P, Laville M, Boissel J-P. Low protein diets delay end-stage renal disease in non-diabetic adults with chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2000; 15:1986-1992.

Ideura T, Shimazui M, Morita H, Yoshimura A. Protein intake of more than 0.5gm per kg BW per day is not effective in suppressing the progression of chronic renal failure. Contrib Nephrol. 2007; 155: 40-49.

Ikizler TA, Greene JH, Wingard RL, Parker RA, Hakim RM. Spontaneous dietary protein intake during progression of chronic renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1995; 6:1386-1391.

Kaizu K, Uriu K, Inada Y, Hashimoto O, Mizobe T, Takagi I, Ito A, Suzuka K, Qie YL, Lee W, Miyamoto H, Tanaka Y. Clinical profiles and outcomes of end-stage renal failure patients with late initiation of renal replacement therapy based on uremic symptoms under intensive renoprotective therapies. Am J Nephrol. 2002; 22(5-6): 521-531.


Kasiske BL, Lakatua JD, Ma JZ, Louis TA. A meta-analysis of the effects of dietary protein restriction on the rate of decline in renal function. Am J Kidney Dis. 1998; 31:954-961.

Kopple JD, Berg R, Houser H, Steinman TI, Teschan P. Nutritional status of patients with different levels of chronic renal insufficiency. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study Group. Kidney Int. 1989; 36(suppl 27): S184-S194.

Levey AS, Adler S, Caggiula AW, England BK, Greene T, Hunsicker LG, Kusek JW, Rogers NL, Teschan PE. Effects of dietary protein restriction on the progression of advanced renal disease in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Am J Kidney Dis. 1996; 27:652-663.

Meloni C, Tatangelo P, Cipriani S, Rossi V, Suraci C, Tozzo C, Rossini B, Cecilia A, DiFranco D, Straccialano E, Casciani CU. Adequate protein dietary restriction in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with chronic renal failure. Journal of Renal Nutrition 2004; 14 (4): 208-213.

Mircescu G, Garneata L, Stancu SH, Capusa C. Effects of a supplemented hypoproteic diet in chronic kidney disease. J. Renal Nutr. 2007; 17(3): 179-188.

Teplan V, Schuck O, Knotek A, Hajny, J, Horrachova M, Skibova J, Maly J. Effects of low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids and erythropoietin in chronic renal failure: A long-term metabolic study. AnnTransplant. 2001; 6 (1): 47-53.

Teschan PE, Beck GJ, Dwyer JT, Greene T, Klahr S, Levy AS, Mitch WE, Snetselaar LG, Steinman TI, Walser M. Effect of a ketoacid-amino acid-supplemented very low protein diet on the progression of advanced renal disease: a reanalysis of the MDRD feasibility study. Clin Nephrology. 1998;50:273-283.

Walser M, Hill SB, Ward L, Madger L. A crossover comparison of progression of chronic renal failure: Ketoacids versus amino acids. Kidney International 1993;43:933-9.

Zakar G, Hungarian Ketosteril Cohort Study Group. The effect of a keto acid supplement on the course of chronic renal failure and nutritional parameters in predialysis patients and patients on regular hemodialysis therapy: The Hungarian Ketosteril Cohort Study. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2001:113:688-694.

Bernardi A, Biasia F, Pati T, Piva M, Scaramuzzo P, Stoppa F, Bucciante G. Factors affecting nutritional status, response to exercise and progression of chronic rejection in kidney transplant recipients. J Renal Nutrition. 15 (1): 54-57, 205.

Bernardi A, Biasia F, Pati T, Piva M, D'Angelo A, Bucciante G. Long-term protein intake control in kidney transplant recipients: Effect in kidney graft function and in nutritional status. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003; 41(S1): S146-S152.

Fujimori K, Satomi S, Okazaki H, Taguchi Y, and Mori S. The effect of protein intake on creatinine clearance in transplanted kidneys. Transplantation Proceedings. 1989; 21: 2,048-2,049.

Salahudenn AK, Hostetter TH, Raatz SK, Rosenberg ME. Effects of dietary protein in patients with chronic renal transplant rejection. Kidney Int. 1992; 41: 183-190.

Dussol B, Iovanna C, Raccah D, Damon P, Morange S, Vague P, Vialettes S, Oliver C, Loundoun A, Berland Y. A randomized trial of low-protein diet in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with incipient and overt nephropathy. J Renal Nutr. 2005; 15: 398-406.

Hansen HP, Christensen PK, Tauber-Lassen E, Klausen A, Jensen BR, Parving H. Low-protein diet and kidney function in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. Kidney International. 1999;55:621-628.

Hansen HP, Tauber-Lassen E, Jensen BR, Parving H-H. Effect of dietary protein restriction on prognosis in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int 2002:61:220-228.

Kasiske BL, Lakatua JD, Ma JZ, Louis TA. A meta-analysis of the effects of dietary protein restriction on the rate of decline in renal function. Am J Kidney Dis. 1998; 31:954-961.

Meloni C, Morosetti M, Suraci C, Pennafina MG, Tozzo C, Taccone-Gallucci M, Casciani CU. Severe dietary protein restriction in overt diabetic nephropathy: Benefits or risks? J Renal Nutr 2002;12:96-101.

Meloni C, Tatangelo P, Cipriani S, Rossi V, Suraci C, Tozzo C, Rossini B, Cecilia A, DiFranco D, Straccialano E, Casciani CU. Adequate protein dietary restriction in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with chronic renal failure. Journal of Renal Nutrition 2004; 14 (4): 208-213.

Narita T, Koshimura J, Suzuki K, Murata M, Meguro H, Fujita H, Kitazato H, Ito S. Effects of Short-Term Glycemic Control, Low Protein Diet and Administration of Enalapril on Renal Hemodynamics and Protein Permselectivity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Microalbuminuria. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1999; 189: 117-133.

Pedrini MT, Levey AS, Lau J, Chalmers TC, Wang PH. The effect of dietary protein restriction on the progression of diabetic and nondiabetic renal diseases: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1996; 124: 627-632.

Pijls LTJ, de Vries H, van Eijk JThM, Donker AJM. Protein restriction, glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56:1200-1207.

Prakash S, Pande DP, Sharma S, Sharma D, Bal CS, Kulkarni H. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of ketodiet in predialytic chronic renal failure. J Renal Nutr. 2004; 14: 89-96.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

National Kidney Foundation KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines are accessible at the following link: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/

Guideline 25: Dietary Energy Intake (DEI) for Non-dialyzed Patients: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_updates/nut_a25.html

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Phosphorus

Cannata-Andia J, Passlick-Deetjen J, Ritz E (eds). Management of the renal patient: experts' recommendations and clinical algorithms on renal osteodystrophy and cardiovascular risk factors. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2000; 15 (suppl 5):39-57.

Combe C, Morel D, de Precigout V, Blanchetier V, Bouchet JL, Potaux L, Fournier A, Aparicio M. Long-term control of hyperparathyroidism in advanced renal failure by low-phosphorus low-protein diet supplemented with calcium (without changes in plasma calcitriol). Nephron 1995; 70(30):287-295.

Delmez JA, Slatopolsky E. Hyperphosphatemia: Its consequences and treatment in patients with chronic renal disease. Am J Kidney Diseases 1992; 19:303-317.

Kates DM, Sherrard DJ, Andress DL. Evidence that serum phosphate is independently associated with serum PTH in patients with chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Diseases 1997;30:809-813.

Martinez I, Saracho R, Montenegro J, Llach F. The importance of dietary calcium and phosphorous in the secondary hyperparathyroidism of patients with early renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 1997;29(4):496-502.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Calcium

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Vitamin D Therapy
          References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

 National Kidney Foundation KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines are accessible at the following link: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/

Guideline 7: Prevention and Treatment of Vitamin D Insufficiency and Vitamin D Deficiency in CKD Patients: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_bone/Guide7.htm

Guideline 8: Vitamin D Therapy in CKD Patients http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_bone/Guide8A.htm

Guideline 13: Treatment of Bone Disease in CKD http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_bone/Guide13B.htm

KDIGO Guideline for Chronic Kidney Disease - Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) Clinical Practice Guidelines are accessible at the following link: http://www.kdigo.org/clinical_practice_guidelines/kdigo_guideline_for_ckd-mbd.php.

 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Anemia

Austrian Multicenter Study Group of r-HuEPO in Predialysis Patients. Effectiveness and safety of recombinant human erythropoietin in predialysis patients. Nephron. 1992; 61:399-403.

Jungers P, Choukroun G, Oualim Z, Robino C, Nguyen A and Man N. Beneficial influence of recombinanat human erythropoietin therapy on the rate of progression of chronic renal failure in predialysis patients. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2001;16:307-312.

US Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Predialysis Study Group. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the therapeutic use of recombinant human erythropoietin for anemia associated with chronic renal failure in predialysis patients. Am J Kidney Disease. 1991; 18: 50-59.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

 

 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Management of Hyperglycemia in Diabetes and CKD

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

  • Delahanty LM. Implications of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial for renal outcomes and medical nutrition therapy. J Renal Nutr. 1998; 8: 59-63.
  • Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993; 329: 977-986.
  • Irvin B. The progression and treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Top Clin Nutr. 1996; 12: 31-40.
  • Pagenkemper JJ. Nutrition management of diabetes in chronic kidney disease. In A Clinical Guide to Nutrition Care in Kidney Disease, edited by Laura Byham-Gray, PhD, RD, CNSD, and Karen Wiesen, MS, RD, Renal Dietitians Dietetic Practice Group of the American Dietetic Association and the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation, 2004.
  • Pogach LM, Brietzke SA, Cowan CL, Jr et al. Development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for diabetes: the Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense guidelines initiative. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27 (Suppl 2): B82-B89.
  • The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. New Engl J Med. 2008; 358: 2, 545-2, 559.
  • The ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. New Engl J Med. 2008; 358: 2, 560-2, 572.
  • National Kidney Foundation KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines are accessible at the following link: http: //www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/
  • Guideline 2: Management of Hyperglycemia and General Diabetes Care in CKD: http: //www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guideline_diabetes/guide2.htm.

 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Multi-Faceted Approach to Intervention in Diabetes and CKD

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

  • Delahanty LM. Implications of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial for renal outcomes and medical nutrition therapy. J Renal Nutr. 1998; 8: 59-63.
  • Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993; 329: 977-986.
  • Irvin B. The progression and treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Top Clin Nutr. 1996; 12: 31-40.
  • Pagenkemper JJ. Nutrition management of diabetes in chronic kidney disease. In A Clinical Guide to Nutrition Care in Kidney Disease, edited by Laura Byham-Gray, PhD, RD, CNSD, and Karen Wiesen, MS, RD, Renal Dietitians Dietetic Practice Group of the American Dietetic Association and the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation, 2004.
  • Pogach LM, Brietzke SA, Cowan CL, Jr et al. Development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for diabetes: the Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense guidelines initiative. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27 (Suppl 2): B82-B89.
  • The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. New Engl J Med. 2008; 358: 2, 545-2, 559.
  • The ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. New Engl J Med. 2008; 358: 2, 560-2, 572.
  • National Kidney Foundation KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines are accessible at the following link: http: //www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/
  • Guideline 2: Management of Hyperglycemia and General Diabetes Care in CKD: http: //www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guideline_diabetes/guide2.htm.

 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Multi-Faceted Approach to Intervention in Dyslipidemias and CKD

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

  • Beto J. Which diet for which renal failure: Making sense of the options. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995; 95: 898-903.
  • Culleton BF, Larson MG, Wilson PWF, Evans JC, Parfrey PS, Levy D. Cardiovascular disease and mortality in a community-based cohort with mild renal insufficiency. Kidney Int 1999; 56: 2, 214-2, 219.
  • Fried LF, Orchard TJ, Kasiske BL. Effect of lipid reduction on the progression of renal disease: A meta-analysis. Kidney Int. 2001; 59: 260-269.
  • Jungers P, Massy ZA, Khoa TN, Fumeron C, Labrunie M, Lacour B, Descamps-Latscha B, Man NK. Incidence and risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular accidents in predialysis chronic renal failure patients: a prospective study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1997; 12: 2, 597-2, 602.
  • Kasiske BL. Hyperlipidemia in patients with chronic renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 1998; 32 (Suppl 3): S142-S156.
  • Muirhead N. The rationale for early management of chronic renal insufficiency. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001; 16 (suppl 7): 51-56.
  • Stenvinkel P, Heimburger O, Paultre F, Diczfalusy U, Wang T, Berglund L, Jogestrand T. Strong association between malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int. 1999; 55: 1, 899-1, 911.
  • National Kidney Foundation KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines are accessible at the following link: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI
  • Managing Dyslipidemias in Chronic Kidney Disease: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/guidelines_lipids/toc.htm
  • Guideline Four: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/guidelines_lipids/iii.htm#guide4
  • Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guideline_diabetes/
  • Guideline Four (Management of Dyslipidemia in Diabetes and CKD): http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guideline_diabetes/guide4.htm.

 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Education on Self-Management Behaviors

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Sodium

Bernardi A, Biasia F, Pati T, Piva M, Scaramuzzo P, Stoppa F, Bucciante G. Factors affecting nutritional status, response to exercise and progression of chronic rejection in kidney transplant recipients. J Renal Nutrition. 15 (1): 54-57, 205.

Bernardi A, Biasia F, Pati T, Piva M, D'Angelo A, Bucciante G. Long-term protein intake control in kidney transplant recipients: Effect in kidney graft function and in nutritional status. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003; 41(S1): S146-S152.

Cianciaruso B, Bellizzi V, Minutolo R, Tavera A, Capuano A, Conte G, De Nicola L. Salt intake and renal outcome in patients with progressive renal disease. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1998;24:296-301.

Imanishi M, Yoshioka K, Okumura M, Konishi Y, Okada N, Morikawa T, Sato T, Tanaka S, Fujii S. Sodium sensitivity related to albuminuria appearaing before hypertension in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care, 2001; 24 (1): 111-116.

Iseki K, Uehara H, Nishime K, Tokuyama K, Yoshihara K, Kinjo K, Shiohira Y, Fukiyama K. Impact of the initial levels of laboratory variables on survival in chronic dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Disease. 1996; 28: 541-548.

Mailloux LU, Levey AS. Hypertension in patients with chronic renal disease. Am J Kidney Diseases 1998; 32(Suppl 3): S120-S141.

Yamamoto ME, Olson MB, Fine J, Powers S, Stollar C. The effect of sodium restriction and weight reduction on blood pressure of patients with hypertension and chronic renal disease. J Renal Nutr. 1997; 7: 25-32.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

 

National Kidney Foundation KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines are accessible at the following link: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/

Guideline 6: Dietary and Other Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes in Adults http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_bp/guide_6.htm

Guideline 5: Management of Hyperglycemia and General Diabetes Care in CKD: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guideline_diabetes/guide5.htm

 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Fish Oil/Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Alexopoulos E, Sangou M, Pantzaki A, Kirmizis D, Memmos D. Treatment of severe IgA nephropathy with omega-3 fatty acids: The effect of a "very low dose" regimen. Renal Failure. 2004; 26: 453-459.

Branten AJW , Klasen IS , Wetzels JFM. Short-term effects of fish oil treatment on urinary excretion of high- and low-molecular weight proteins in patients with IgA nephropathy. Clinical Nephrology. 2002; 58: 267-274.

Dillon JJ. Fish oil therapy for IgA nephropathy: Efficacy and interstudy variability. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1997; 8: 1,739-1,744.

Donadio JV, Larson TS, Bergstralh EJ, Grande JE. Randomized trial of high-dose compared with low-dose omega-3 fatty acids in severe IgA nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001; 12: 791-799.

Hogg RJ, Lee J, Nardelli N, Julian BA, Cattran D, Waldo B, Wyatt R, Jennette C, Sibley R, Hyland K, Fitzgibbons L, Hirshchman G, Donadio JV, Holub BJ. Clinical trial to evaluate omega-3 fatty acids and alternate day prednisone in patients with IgA nephropathy: Report from the Southwest Pediatric Nephrology Study Group. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006; 1: 467-474.

Parinyasiri U, Ong-Ajyooth L,Parichatikanond P,Ong-Ajyooth S,Liammongkolkul S, Kanyog S. Effect of fish oil on oxidative stress, lipid profile and renal function in IgA nephropathy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2004 Feb; 87(2): 143-149.

Sulikowska B, Nieweglowski T, Manitius J, Lysiak-Szydlowska W, Rutkowski B. Effects of 12-month therapy with omega-3 polyunsaturated acids on glomerular filtration response to dopamine in IgA nephropathy. Am J Nephrol. 2004; 24: 474-482.

Lim AK, Manley KJ, Roberts MA, Fraenkel MB. Fish oil treatment for kidney transplant recipients: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Transplantation. 2007 Apr 15; 83(7): 831-838.

Tatsioni A, Chung M, Sun Y, Kupelnick B, Lichtenstein AH, Perrone R, Chew P, Lau J, Bonis PA. Effects of fish oil supplementation on kidney transplantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005 Aug; 16(8): 2,462-2,470.

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD):Physical Activity

Castaneda C, Gordon PL, Uhlin KL, Levey AS, Kehayias JJ, Levey AS, Kehayias JJ, Dwyer JT, Fielding RA, Roubenoff R, Singh MF. Resistance training to counteract the catabolism of a low-protein diet in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Ann Intern Med. 2001; 135 (11): 965-976.

Castaneda C, Gordon PL, Parker RC, Uhlin KL, Roubenoff R, Levey AS. Resistance training to reduce the malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome of chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004; 43 (4): 607-616.

Fitts SS, Guthrie MR, Blagg CR. Exercise coaching and rehabilitation counseling improve quality of life for predialysis and dialysis patients. Nephron. 1999; 82: 115-121.

Pechter U, Ots M, Mesikepp S, Zilmer K, Kullissaar T, Vihalemm T, Zilmer M, Maaroos J. Beneficial effects of water-based exercise in patients with chronic kidney disease. Int J Rehabil Res. 2003; 26 (2): 153-156.

Cosio-Lima LM, Thompson PD, Reynolds KL, Headley SA, Winter CR, Manos T, Lagasse MA, Todorovich JR, Germain M. The acute effect of aerobic exercise on brachial artery endothelial function in renal transplant recipients. Prev Cardiol. 2006; 9 (4): 211-214.

Juskowa J, Lewandowska M, Bartlomiejczyk I, Foroncewicz B, Korabiewska I, Miewszas M, Sierdzinski J. Physical Rehabilitation and Risk of Atherosclerosis After Successful Kidney Transplantation. Transplantation Proceedings. 2006; 38: 157-160.

Painter PL, Hector L, Ray K, Lynes L, Dibble S, Paul SM, Tomlanovich SL, Ascher N. A randomized trial of exercise training after renal transplantation. Transplantation. 2002; 74 (1): 42-48.

Painter PL, Hector L, Ray K, Lynes L, Paul SM, Dodd M, Tomlanovich SL, Ascher N. Effects of exercise training in coronary heart disease risk factors in renal transplant recipients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003. 42 (2): 362-369.

Van den Ham ECH, Kooman JP, Schols AMWJ, Nieman FHM, Does JD, Akkermans MA, Janssen PP, Gosker HR, Ward KA, MacDonald, JH, Christiaans MHL, Leunissen KML, Van Hooff JP. The functional, metabolic, and anabolic responses to exercise training in renal transplant and hemodialysis patients. Transplantation. 2007; 83 (8): 1,059-1,068.

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Coordination of Care

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Multivitamin Supplementation

Caravaca F, Fernandez MA, Ruiz-Calero R, Cubero J, Aparicio A, Jimenez F, Garcia MC. Effects of oral phosphorus supplementation on mineral metabolism of renal transplant recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998; 13: 2,605-2,611.

Sezer S, Uyar M, Arat Z, Ozdemir FN, Haberal M. Potential effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation Proceedings. 2005 Sept; 37(7): 3,109-3,111.

Teplan V, Schuck O, Stollova M, Vitko S. Obesity and hyperhomocysteinuria after kidney transplantation. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003; 18(suppl 5): 71-73.

Wilcken DEL, Gupta VJ, Betts AK. Homocysteinein the plasma of renal transplant recipients: effects of cofactors for methionine metabolism. Clin Sci. 1981; 61: 743-749.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

National Kidney Foundation KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines are accessible at the following link: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/

Guideline 7: Prevention and Treatment of Vitamin D Insufficiency and Vitamin D Deficiency in CKD Patients: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_bone/Guide7.htm

Guideline 8: Vitamin D Therapy in CKD Patients http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_bone/Guide8A.htm

Guideline 13: Treatment of Bone Disease in CKD http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_bone/Guide13B.htm

 

 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Potassium

Bakris GL, Siomos M, Richardson D, Janssen I, Bolton WK, Hebert L, Agarwal R, Catanzaro D. ACE inhibition or angiotensin receptor blockade: Impact on potassium in renal failure. Kidney Int 2000; 58:2084-2092.

Iseki K, Uehara H, Nishime K, Tokuyama K, Yoshihara K, Kinjo K, Shiohira Y, Fukiyama K. Impact of the initial levels of laboratory variables on survival in chronic dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Disease. 1996; 28: 541-548.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

National Kidney Foundation KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines are accessible at the following link: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/

Guideline 6: Dietary and Other Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes in Adults http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_bp/guide_6.htm

Guideline 5: Management of Hyperglycemia and General Diabetes Care in CKD: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guideline_diabetes/guide5.htm

 

 

Monitoring and Evaluation

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Monitor and Evaluate Biochemical Parameters

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

National Kidney Foundation KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines are accessible at the following link: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/

Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_updates/nut_a23.html

Bone Metabolism and Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_bone/index.htm

Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease:http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_anemia/index.htm

 

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Monitor and Evaluate Adherence to Nutrition and Lifestyle Recommendations

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

National Kidney Foundation KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines are accessible at the following link:http://www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/

Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure:http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_updates/nut_a23.html

Bone Metabolism and Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease:http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_bone/index.htm

Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease:http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_anemia/index.htm