This Academy member benefit temporarily has been made public to allow all practitioners access to content that may assist in patient care during the national pandemic response. Click here for information on joining the Academy. 

Energy Expenditure

EE: References (2013)

References used in this guideline are listed within each recommendation, see the Major Recommendations section.
To view references included and excluded from this evidence analysis, view the Criteria and Results for Specific Topics.

Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline for Measuring Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) in the Critically Ill
 
Major Recommendation References

Before Measurement Recommendations

EE: Rest Period Duration in Critically Ill  

Swinamer DL, Phang PT, Jones RL, Grace M, Garner King E. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 1987;15(7):637-643.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

EE: Thermic Effect of Feeding (TEF) in Critically Ill 

Alves VG, da Rocha EE, Gonzalez MC, da Fonseca RB, Silva MH, Chiesa CA. Assessement of resting energy expenditure of obese patients: Comparison of indirect calorimetry with formulae. Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun; 28(3): 299-304.

Cankayali I, Demiraq K, Kocabas S, Moral AR. The effects of standard and branched chain amino acid enriched solutions on thermogenesis and energy expenditure in unconscious intensive care patients. Clin Nutr. 2004; 23(2): 257-263.

Frankenfield DC, Ashcraft CM. Description and prediction of resting metabolic rate after stroke and traumatic brain injury. Nutrition. 2012 Sep; 28(9): 906-911.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

McClave SA & Snider HL. Use of indirect calorimerty in clinical nutrition. Nutr Clin Prac 1992, 7: 207-221.

de Rocha, EM, Alves, VG, de Fonseca RB. Indirect calorimerty: methodology, insturments and clinical application. Current Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006, 9: 247-256.

EE: Diurnal Variation (Time of Day) in Critically Ill 

Frankenfield DC, Wiles II CE, Bagley S, Siegel JH. Relationships between resting and total energy expenditure in injured and septic patients. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(11):1796-1804.

van Lanschot JJB, Feenstra BWA, Vermeij CG, Bruining HA. Accuracy of intermittent metabolic gas exchange recordings extrapolated for diurnal variation. Crit Care Med. 1988; 16 (8): 737-742.

Zijlstra N, ten Dam SM, Hulshof PJ, Ram C, Hiemstra G, de Roos NM. 24-hour indirect calorimetry in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007; 22(2): 250-255.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

EE: Gas Collection Devices in Critically Ill 

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Brandi, L.S., Bertolini, R. and Calafa M. (1997). Indirect Calorimetry in Critically Ill Patients: Clinical Applications and Practical Advice. Nutrition, 13, 349-358.

Matarese LE. Indirect calorimetry: technical aspects. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997 Oct; 97(10 Suppl 2): S154-A160. Review. PMID:9336580.

McClave SA, Snider HL. Use of indirect calorimetry in clinical nutrition. Nutr Clin Pract. 1992 Oct; 7(5): 207-221. Review. PMID:1289691.

EE: Room Conditions in Critically Ill 

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Claessens-van Ooijen AM, Westerterp KR, Wouters L, Schoffelen PF, van Steenhoven AA, van Marken Lichtenbelt WD. Heat production and body temperature during cooling and rewarming in overweight and lean men. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006; 14(11): 1,914-1,920.

Feurer I, Mullen JL. Bedside measurement of resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient via indirect calorimetry. Nutr Clin Prac 1986; 1: 43-49.

Matarese LE. Indirect calorimetry: Technical aspects. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997; 97 (Suppl 2): S154-S160.

McClave SA, Snider HL. Use of indirect calorimetry in clinical nutrition. Nutr Clin Pract. 1992; 7: 207-221.

EE: Body Positions in Critically Ill 

Brandi LS, Bertolini R, Janni A, Gioia A, Angeletti CA. Energy metabolism of thoracic surgical patients in the early postoperative period. Effect of posture. Chest. 1996;109:630-637.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) and American Dietetic Association (ADA): standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitians (generalist, specialty, and advanced) in nutrition support.
Task Force of A.S.P.E.N; American Dietetic Association Dietitians in Nutrition Support Dietetic Practice Group, Russell M, Stieber M, Brantley S, Freeman AM, Lefton J, Malone AM, Roberts S, Skates J, Young LS; A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors; ADA Quality Management Committee. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007 Oct; 22 (5): 558-586.

PHAMA Patient Handling and Movement Assessments: A White Paper. Prepared by the 2010 Health Guidelines Revision Committee Specialty Subcommittee on Patient Movement: Martin H. Cohen, Gaius G. Nelson, David A. Green, Robert Leib, Mary W. Matz, et al. Carla M. Bordon, editor. 2010. Accessed online 1/23/2012:
http://www.fgiguidelines.org/pdfs/FGI_PHAMA_whitepaper_042810.pdf

During Measurement Recommendations

EE: Duration of Measurement (Steady State) in Critically Ill  

Cunningham KF, Aeberhardt LE, Wiggs BR, Phang T. Appropriate interpretation of indirect calorimetry for determining energy expenditure of patients in intensive care units. Am J Surg. 1994; 167: 547-549.

Frankenfield DC, Sarson GY, Blosser SA, Cooney RN, Smith JS. Validation of a five-minute steady state indirect calorimetry protocol for resting energy expenditure in critically ill patients. J Am College Nutr. 1996; 15: 397-402.

Petros S, Engelmann L. Validity of an abbreviated indirect calorimetry protocol for measurement of resting energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated and spontaneous breathing critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 2001;27:1167-1168.

McClave SA, Spain DA, Skolnick JL, Lowen CC, Kieber MJ, Wickerham PS, Vogt JR, Looney SW. Achievement of steady state optimizes results when performing indirect calorimetry. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2003; 27(1): 16-20.

van Lanschot JJB, Feenstra BWA, Vermeij CG, Bruining HA. Accuracy of intermittent metabolic gas exchange recordings extrapolated for diurnal variation. Crit Care Med. 1988; 16 (8): 737-742.

van Lanschot JJ, Feenstra BW, Vermeij CG, Bruining HA. Calculation versus measurement of total energy expenditure. Critical Care Medicine. 1986; 14: 981-985.

Zijlstra N, ten Dam SM, Hulshof PJ, Ram C, Hiemstra G, de Roos NM. 24-hour indirect calorimetry in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007; 22(2): 250-255.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

After Measurement Recommendations

EE: Application of Respiratory Quotient (RQ) in Critically Ill  

Brandi LS, Bertolini R, Santini L, Cavani S. Effects of ventilator resetting on indirect calorimetry measurement in the critically ill surgical patient. Crit Care Med. 1999;27(3):531-539.

Frankenfield DC, Smith JS, Cooney RN. Accelerated nitrogen loss after traumatic injury is not attenuated by achievement of energy balance. J Parent Enteral Nutr. 1997; 21(6): 324-329.

Guenst IM, Nelson LD. Predictors of parenteral nutrition-induced lipogenesis. Chest. 1994;105(2):553-559.

Ireton-Jones CS, Turner WW. The use of respiratory quotient to determine the efficacy of nutrition support regimes. J Am Diet Assoc. 1987 (2): 180-183.

Kan MN, Chang HH, Sheu WF, Cheng CH, Lee BJ, Huang YC. Estimation of energy requirements for mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients using nutritional status. Crit Care. 2003;7(5):R108.

McClave SA, Lowen CC, Kleber MJ, CmConnell , Jung LY, Goldsmith LJ. Clinical use of the respiratory quotient obtained from indirect calorimetery. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2003;27(1):21-26.

Weissman C, Kemper M, Askanazi J, Hyman AI, Kinney JM. Resting metabolic rate of the critically ill patients: Measured versus predicted. J Anesthesiology. 1986;64(6):673-679.

Zauner C, Schuster BI, Schneeweiss B. Similar metabolic responses to standardized total parenteral nutrition of septic and nonseptic critcally ill patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:265-270

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

da Rocha EE, Alves VG, da Fonseca RB. Indirect calorimetry: methodology, instruments and clinical application. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006 May; 9(3): 247-256. Review. PMID: 16607124

Elia M, Livesey G. Energy expenditure and fuel selection in biological systems: the theory and practice of calculations based on indirect calorimetry and tracer methods. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1992; 70: 68-131. Review. No abstract available. PMID: 1292242

Elia M, Livesey G. Theory and validity of indirect calorimetry during net lipid synthesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988 Apr;47(4): 591-607. Review. PMID:3281433

McClave SA, Lowen CC, Kleber MJ, CmConnell , Jung LY, Goldsmith LJ. Clinical use of the respiratory quotient obtained from indirect calorimetery. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2003; 27(1): 21-26.