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Disorders of Lipid Metabolism

DLM: References (2011)

References used in this guideline are listed within each recommendation, see the Major Recommendations section.

To view references included and excluded from this evidence analysis, view the Criteria and Results for Specific Topics.

 

Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Update Major Recommendations References

Medical Nutrition Therapy

DLM: Referral to a Registered Dietitian for Medical Nutrition Therapy

Delahanty LM, Sonnenberg LM, Hayden D, Nathan DM. Clinical and cost outcomes of medical nutrition therapy for hypercholesterolemia: A controlled trial. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001 Sep; 101(9): 1,012-1,023.

Sikand G, Kashyap ML, Yang I. Medical nutrition therapy lowers serum cholesterol and saves medication costs in men with hypercholesterolemia. JADA. 1998; 98: 889-894.

Sikand G, Kashyap ML, Wong ND, Hsu JC. Dietitian intervention improves lipid values and saves medication costs in men with combined hyperlipidemia and a history of niacin noncompliance. JADA. 2000; 100: 218-224.

Dalgard et. al. Saturated fat intake is reduced in patients with ischemic heart disease 1 year after comprehensive counseling but not after brief counseling. J Am Diet Assoc.. 2001;101:1420-1424, 1429.

Geil P, Anderson JW, Gustafson NJ. Women and men with hypercholesterolemia respond similarly to an American Heart Association step 1 diet. JADA. 1995; 95: 436-441.

Hebert JR, Ebbeling CB, Ockene IS, Ma Y, Rider L, Merriam PA, Ockene JK, Saperia G. A dietitian-delivered group nutrition program leads to reductions in dietary fat, serum cholesterol and body weight: The Worcester area trial for counseling in hyperlipidemia (WATCH). J Am Diet Assoc. 1999; 99: 544-552.

Henkin Y, Shai I, Zuk R, Brickner D, Zuilli I, Neumann L, Shany S. Dietary treatment of hypercholesterolemia: Do dietitians do it better? Am J Med. 2000: 109: 549-555.

Lim HJ, Choi YM, Choue R. Dietary intervention with emphasis on folate intake reduces serum lipids but not plasma homocysteine levels in hyperlipidemic patients. Nutr Res. 2008 Nov; 28(11): 767-774.

McGehee MM, Johnson EQ, Rasmussen HM, Salryoun N, Lynch MM, Carey M. Benefits and costs of medical nutrition therapy by registered dietitians for patients with hypercholesterolemia. JADA. 1995; 95: 1,041-1,043.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (ATP III Final Report). National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. US Department of Health and Human Services. 2001. Accessed online: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/atp3full.pdf (pending the expected release of ATP IV in Fall 2011).

Nutrition Assessment

DLM: Nutrition Assessment

Baik I, Acheria A, Rimm EB, Govannucci E, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Adiposity and mortality in men. Am J Epid. 2000; 152: 264-271.

Calle, EE, Thun MJ, Petrelli JM, Rodriguez C, Heath CW. Body-mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341: 1,097-1,105.

Cho E, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Solomon CG, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Willett WC, Hu FB. A prospective study of obesity and risk of coronary heart disease among diabetic women. Diabetes Care 2002; 25 (7): 1,142-1,148.

Denke MA, Sempos CT, Grundy SM. Excess body weight. An underrecognized contributor to high blood cholesterol levels in white American men. Arch Int Med. 1993; 153: 1,093-1,103.

Ellekjaer H, Holmen J, Vatten L. Blood pressure, smoking and body mass in relation to mortality from stroke and coronary heart disease in the elderly. A 10-year follow-up in Norway. Blood Pressure 2001; 10: 156-163.

Folsom AR, Kaye SA, Sellers TA, Hong CP, Cerhan JR, Potter JE, Prineas RJ. Body fat distribution and 5-year risk of death in older women. JAMA. 1993;269:483-487.

Iwao S, Iwai N, Muller DC, Elahi D, Shimokata H, Andres R. Effect of aging on the relationship between multiple risk factors and waist circumference. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000; 48: 788-794.

Jonsson S, Hedblad B, Engstrom G, Nilsson P, Berglund G, Janzon L. Influence of obesity on cardiovascular risk. Twenty-three-year follow-up of 22,025 men from an urban Swedish population. International Journal of Obesity. 2002; 26: 1,046-1,053.

Kanaya AM, Vittinghoff E, Shlipak MG, Resnick HE, Visser M, Grady D, Barrett-Connor E. Association of total and central obesity with mortality in postmenopausal women with coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 158: 1,161-1,170.

Lakka HM, Lakka TA, Tuomilehto J, Salonen JT. Abdominal obesity is associated with increased risk of acute coronary events in men. European Heart Journal 2002;23:706-713.

Newton KM, LaCroiz AZ. Association of body mass index with reinfarction and survival after first myocardial infarction in women. J Women’s Health. 1996;5:433-444.

Rexrode KM, Buring JE, Manson JE. Abdominal and total adiposity and risk of coronary heart disease in men. International Journal of Obesity. 2001; 25: 1,047-1,056.

Rexrode KM, Carey VJ, Hennekens CH, Walters EE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Manson JE. Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women. JAMA. 1998; 280: 1,843-1,848.

Song Y, Sung J. Body mass index and mortality: A twelve year prospective study in korea. Epidemiology 2001; 12 (2): 173-179.

Stevens J, Cai J, Pamuk E, Williamson D, Thun M, Wood J. The effect of age on the association between body-mass index and mortality. N Engl J Med. 1998; 338 (1): 1-7.

Welborn TA, Dhaliwal SS, Bennett SA. Waist-hip ratio is the dominant risk factor predicting cardiovascular death in Australia. MJA 2003;179: 580-585.

Zhou B, Wu Y, Yang J, Li Y, Zhang H, Zhao L. Overweight is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in Chinese populations. Obes Rev. 2002 Aug; 3 (3): 147-156.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

ATP III Full Report and Executive Summary. National Cholesterol Education Program. Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Choleterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). 2004. Accessed December 15, 2010: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/ (pending the expected release of ATP IV in Fall 2011).

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. In: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. The National Academies Press; 2005: 481-485. Accessed online: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490.

Monsen, ER and Van Horn, L. (Editors). Research: Successful Approaches, 3rd Edition. Chapter 14: Dietary Assessment and Validation. American Dietetic Association. 2008.

DLM: Determine Energy and Macronutrient Needs

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

 

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. In: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. The National Academies Press; 2005: 481-485. Accessed online: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490

Monsen, ER and Van Horn, L. (Editors). Research: Successful Approaches, 3rd Edition. Chapter 14: Dietary Assessment and Validation. American Dietetic Association. 2008.

Nutrition Intervention

Cardioprotective Diet and Macronutrients

DLM: Major Fat Components

Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III)National Cholesterol Education Program, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Insitutes of Health, NIH Publication No. 02-5215, September 2002

Bautista LE, Herran OF, Serrano C. Effects of palm oil and dietary cholesterol on plasma lipoproteins: results from a dietary crossover trial in free-living subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001 Sep; 55(9): 748-54.

Brunner E, White I, Thorogood M, Bristow A, Curle D, Marmot M. Can dietary interventions change diet and cardiovascular risk factors? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Pub Health 1997; 87:1415-1422.

De Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, Monjaud I, Delaye J, Mamelle N. Mediterranean Diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction, final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation. 1999; 99: 779-785.

Denke MA, Sempos CT, Grundy SM. Excess body weight. An underrecognized contributor to high blood cholesterol levels in white American men. Arch Int Med. 1993; 153: 1,093-1,103.

Ginsberg HN, Kris-Etherton P, Dennis B, Elmer PJ, Ershow A, Lefevre M, Pearson T, Roheim P, Ramakrishnan R, Reed R, Stewart K, Stewart P, Phillips K, Anderson N. The effects of reducing saturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy subjects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998; 18: 441-449.

Howell WH, McNamara DJ, Tosca MA, Smith BT, Gaines JA. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein responses to dietary fat and cholesterol: meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997; 65:1747 1764.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner D, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Parker TL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. The effect of combining plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and almonds in treating hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism. 2003 Nov; 52(11): 1478-83

Johnson CL, Rifkind BM, Sempos CT, Carroll MD, Bachorik PS, Briefel RR, Grodon DJ, Burt VL, Brown CD, Lippel L, Cleeman JL. Declining serum cholesterol levels among US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. JAMA 1993 Jun 16; 269 (23): 3,002-3,008.

Judd JT, Baer DJ, Kris-Etherton P, Muesing RA, Iwane M. Dietary cis and trans monounsaturated and saturated FA and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in men. Lipids. 2002 Feb;37(2):123-31.

Kris-Etherton PM, Zhao G, Pelkman CL, Fishell VK, Coval SM. Beneficial effects of a diet high in monounsaturated fatty acids on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Nutr in Clin Care. 2000;3:153-162.

Kris-Etherton PM. Summary of the Scientific Conference on Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health: Conference Summary from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2001.103: 1,034-1,039.

Lichtenstein AH, Ausman LM, Jalbert SM, Vilella-Bach M, Jauhiainen M, McGladdery S, Erkkila AT, Ehnholm C, Frohlich J, Schaefer EJ. Efficacy of a Therapeutic Lifestyle Change/Step 2 diet in moderately hypercholesterolemic middle-aged and elderly female and male subjects. Journal of Lipid Research. 2002 Feb; 43(2): 264-73.

Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester AD, Katan MB. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003 May; 77(5): 1146-55.

Obarzanek E, Sacks FM, Vollmer WM, Bray GA, Miller ER 3rd, Lin PH, Karanja NM, Most-Windhauser MM, Moore TJ, Swain JF, Bales CW, Proschan MA; DASH Research Group. Effects on blood lipids of a blood pressure-lowering diet: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001. 74(1):80-9.

Yu-Poth S, Zhao G, Etherton T, Naglak M, Jonnalagadda S, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Step I and Step II dietary intervention programs on cardiovascular disease risk factors: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:632-646.

Baylin A, Kabagambe EK, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Campos H. High 18:2 trans-fatty acids in adipose tissue are associated with increased risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in Costa Rican adults. J Nutr 2003; 133: 1186-91.

Oomen, Ocke, Feskens, et al. Association between trans fatty acid intake and 10-year risk of coronary heart disease in the Zutphen Elderly Study: a prospective population-based study. Lancet 2001; 357: 746-51.

Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Rosner BA, Sampson LA, Hennekens CH. Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women. Lancet. 1993; 341: 581-585.

Allison DB, Egan K, Barra LM, Caughman, C, Infante M, Heimbach JT. Estimated intakes of trans fatty and other fatty acids in the US population. JADA. 1999;99:166-174.

de Roos N, Schouten E, Katan M. Consumption of a solid fat rich in lauric acid results in a more favorable serum lipid profile in healthy men and women than consumption of a solid fat rich in trans-fatty acids. J Nutr. 2001 Feb; 131 (2): 242-245.

Lichtenstein AH, Jauhiainen M, McGladdery S, Ausman LM, Jalbert SM, Vilella-Bach M, Ehnholm C, Frohlich J, Schaefer EJ. Impact of hydrogenated fat on high density lipoprotein subfractions and metabolism. J Lipid Res. 2001 Apr; 42 (4): 597-604.

Mauger JF, Lichtenstein AH, Ausman LM, Jalbert SM, Jauhiainen M, Ehnholm C, Lamarche B. Effect of different forms of dietary hydrogenated fats on LDL particle size. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep; 78 (3): 370-375.

Tonstad S, Strom EC, Bergei CS, Ose L, Christophersen B. Serum cholesterol response to replacing butter with a new trans-free margarine in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2001 Oct;11(5):320-6

Zock PL, Katran MB. Butter, margarine, and serum lipids. Atherosclerosis. 1997; 131: 7-16.

Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, Obarzanek E, Swain JF, Miller ER, Conlin PR, Erlinger TP, Rosner BA, Laranjo NM, Charleston J, McCarron P, Bishop LM for the OmniHeart Collaborative Research Group. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA. 2005; 294: 2,455-2,464.

Berglund L, Lefevre M, Ginsberg HN, Kris-Etherton PM, Elmer PJ, Stewart PW, Ershow A, Pearson TA, Dennis BH, Roheim PS, Ramakrishnan R, Reed R, Stewart K, Phillips KM; DELTA Investigators. Comparison of monounsaturated fat with carbohydrates as a replacement for saturated fat in subjects with a high metabolic risk profile: studies in the fasting and postprandial states. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec; 86 (6): 1,611-1,620

Ginsberg HN, Kris-Etherton P, Dennis B, Elmer PJ, Ershow A, Lefevre M, Pearson T, Roheim P, Ramakrishnan R, Reed R, Stewart K, Stewart P, Phillips K, Anderson N. The effects of reducing saturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy subjects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998; 18: 441-449.

Harsha D, Sacks F, Obarzanek E, Svetkey L, Lin P, Gray G, Aickin M, Conlin P, Miller E, Appel L. Effect of dietary sodium intake on blood lipids: Results from the DASH-Sodium Trial. Hypertension. 2004; 43[part 2]: 393-398.

Obarzanek E, Sacks FM, Vollmer WM, Bray GA, Miller ER 3rd, Lin PH, Karanja NM, Most-Windhauser MM, Moore TJ, Swain JF, Bales CW, Proschan MA; DASH Research Group. Effects on blood lipids of a blood pressure-lowering diet: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001. 74(1):80-9.

Paniagua JA, de la Sacristana AG, Sanchez E, Romero I, Vidal-Puig A, Berral FJ, Escribano A, Moyano MJ, Perez-Martinez P, Lopez-Miranda J, Perez-Jimenez F. A MUFA-rich diet improves postprandial glucose, lipid and GLP-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 2007; 26(5): 434-44.

Pérez-Jiménez F, López-Miranda J, Pinillos MD, Gómez P, Paz-Rojas E, Montilla P, Marín C, Velasco MJ, Blanco-Molina A, Jiménez Perepérez JA, Ordovás JM. A Mediterranean and a high-carbohydrate diet improve glucose metabolism in healthy young persons. Diabetologia. 2001 Nov; 44(11): 2,038-2,043.

Allman-Farinelli MA, Gomes K, Favaloro EJ, Petocz P. A diet rich in high-oleic acid sunflower oil favorably alters low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and factor VII coagulant activity. J Am Diet Assoc 2005; 105:1071-1079.

Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, Obarzanek E, Swain JF, Miller ER 3rd, Conlin PR, Erlinger TP, Rosner BA, Laranjo NM, Charleston J, McCarron P, Bishop LM; OmniHeart Collaborative Research Group. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA. 2005 Nov 16;294(19):2455-64.

Berglund L, Lefevre M, Ginsberg HN, Kris-Etherton PM, Elmer PJ, Stewart PW, Ershow A, Pearson TA, Dennis BH, Roheim PS, Ramakrishnan R, Reed R, Stewart K, Phillips KM; DELTA Investigators. Comparison of monounsaturated fat with carbohydrates as a replacement for saturated fat in subjects with a high metabolic risk profile: studies in the fasting and postprandial states. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec; 86 (6): 1,611-1,620

Binkoski AE, Kris-Etherton PM, Wilson TA, Mountain ML, Nicolosi RJ. Balance of unsaturated fatty acids is important to a cholesterol-lowering diet: Comparison of mid-oleic sunflower oil and olive oil on cardiovascular disease risk factors. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Jul; 105(7): 1,080-1,086.

Clifton PM, Noakes M, Keogh JB. Very low-fat (12%) and high monounsaturated fat (35%) diets do not differentially affect abdominal fat loss in overweight, nondiabetic women. J Nutr. 2004 Jul; 134 (7): 1,741-1,745.

Due A, Larsen TM, Mu H, Hermansen K, Stender S, Astrup A. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: a 6-mo randomized, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Nov;88(5):1232-41.

Jakobsen MU, O'Reilly EJ, Heitmann BL, et al. Major types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. May 2009;89(5):1425-1432.

Lopez S, Bermudez B, Pacheco YM, Villar J, Abia R, Muriana FJ. Distinctive postprandial modulation of beta cell function and insulin sensitivity by dietary fats: monounsaturated compared with saturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr. Sep 2008;88(3):638-644.

Paniagua JA, de la Sacristana AG, Sánchez E, Romero I, Vidal-Puig A, Berral FJ, Escribano A, Moyano MJ, Peréz-Martinez P, López-Miranda J, Pérez-Jiménez F. A MUFA-rich diet improves postprandial glucose, lipid and GLP-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct; 26 (5): 434-444.

Rasmussen BM, Vessby B, Uusitupa M, Berglund L, Pedersen E, Riccardi G, Rivellese AA, Tapsell L, Hermansen K. Effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and n-3 fatty acids on blood pressure in healthy subjects, Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 83: 221-226.

Tanasescu M, Cho E, Manson JE, Hu FB. Dietary fat and cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun;79(6):999-1005.

Thijssen MA, Mensink RP. Small differences in the effects of stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid on the serum lipoprotein profile of humans.Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):510-6.

Thijssen MA, Hornstra G, Mensink RP. Stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids have comparable effects on markers of thrombotic tendency in healthy human subjects. J Nutr. 2005 Dec;135(12):2805-11.

Hodge AM, English DR, O'Dea K, Sinclair AJ, Makrides M, Gibson RA, Giles GG. Plasma phospholipid and dietary fatty acids as predictors of type 2 diabetes: Interpreting the role of linoleic acid. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul; 86 (1): 189-197.

Laaksonen DE, Nyyssönen K, Niskanen L, Rissanen TH, Salonen JT. Prediction of cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged men by dietary and serum linoleic and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Jan 24;165(2):193-9.

Liou YA, King DJ, Zibrik D, Innis SM. Decreasing linoleic acid with constant alpha-linolenic acid in dietary fats increases (n-3) eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma phospholipids in healthy men. J Nutr. 2007 Apr;137(4):945-52.

Mozaffarian D, Ascherio A, Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Siscovick DS, Rimm EB. Interplay between different polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Circulation. 2005 Jan 18; 111(2): 157-164. Epub 2005 Jan 3.

Oh K, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Dietary fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women: 20 years of follow-up of the nurses' health study. Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Apr 1;161(7):672-9.

St-Onge MP, Aban I, Bosarge A, Gower B, Hecker KD, Allison DB. Snack chips fried in corn oil alleviate cardiovascular disease risk factors when substituted for low-fat or high-fat snacks. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1503-10.

Zhao G, Etherton TD, Martin KR, West SG, Gillies PJ, Kris-Etherton PM. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid reduces inflammatory and lipid cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic men and women. J Nutr 2004;134(11): 2991-2997.

Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P, Hedayati M, Esmaillzadeh A, Shiva N, Azizi F. Particle size of LDL is affected by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) step II diet in dyslipidaemic adolescents. Br J Nutr. 2007 Jul; 98 (1): 134-139. Epub 2007 Apr 20.

Bourque C, St-Onge MP, Papamandjaris AA, Cohn JS, Jones PJ. Consumption of an oil composed of medium chain triacyglycerols, phytosterols, and N-3 fatty acids improves cardiovascular risk profile in overweight women. Metabolism. 2003 Jun;52(6):771-7.

Buonacorso V, Nakandakare ER, Nunes VS, Passarelli M, Quintão EC, Lottenberg AM. Macrophage cholesterol efflux elicited by human total plasma and by HDL subfractions is not affected by different types of dietary fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov; 86(5): 1,270-1,277.

Chen SC, Judd JT, Kramer M, Meijer GW, Clevidence BA, Baer DJ. Phytosterol intake and dietary fat reduction are independent and additive in their ability to reduce plasma LDL cholesterol. Lipids. 2009 Mar;44(3):273-81. Epub 2009 Jan 15.

Chung BH, Cho BH, Liang P, Doran S, Osterlund L, Oster RA, Darnell B, Franklin F. Contribution of postprandial lipemia to the dietary fat-mediated changes in endogenous lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov; 80(5): 1,145-1,158.

Dabadie H, Peuchant E, Bernard M, LeRuyet P, Mendy F. Moderate intake of myristic acid in sn-2 position has beneficial lipidic effects and enhances DHA of cholesteryl esters in an interventional study J Nutr Biochem. 2005 Jun;16(6):375-82.

Furtado JD, Campos H, Appel LJ, Miller ER, Laranjo N, Carey VJ, Sacks FM. Effect of protein, unsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intakes on plasma apolipoprotein B and VLDL and LDL containing apolipoprotein C-III: results from the OmniHeart Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1623-30.

Galgani JE, Uauy RD, Aguirre CA, Díaz EO. Effect of the dietary fat quality on insulin sensitivity. Br J Nutr. 2008 ;100(3):471-9.

Han JR, Deng B, Sun J, Chen CG, Corkey BE, Kirkland JL, Ma J, Guo W. Effects of dietary medium-chain triglyceride on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in a group of moderately overweight free-living type 2 diabetic Chinese subjects. Metabolism. 2007 Jul;56(7):985-91.

Hu FB, van Dam RM, Liu S. Diet and risk of Type II diabetes: the role of types of fat and carbohydrate. Diabetologia. 2001 Jul;44(7):805-17.

Jakobsen MU, O'Reilly EJ, Heitmann BL, et al. Major types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. May 2009;89(5):1425-1432.

Kralova Lesna I, Suchanek P, Kovar J, Stavek P, Poledne R. Replacement of dietary saturated FAs by PUFAs in diet and reverse cholesterol transport. J Lipid Res. 2008 Nov;49(11):2414-8. Epub 2008 Jul 9.

Lefevre M, Champagne CM, Tulley RT, Rood JC, Most MM. Individual variability in cardiovascular disease risk factor responses to low-fat and low-saturated-fat diets in men: body mass index, adiposity, and insulin resistance predict changes in LDL cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Nov;82(5):957-63;

Lichtenstein AH, Matthan NR, Jalbert SM, Resteghini NA, Schaefer EJ, Ausman LM. Novel soybean oils with different fatty acid profiles alter cardiovascular disease risk factors in moderately hyperlipidemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Sep;84(3):497-504.

Lindström J, Ilanne-Parikka P, Peltonen M, Aunola S, Eriksson JG, Hemiö K, Hämäläinen H, Härkönen P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Louheranta A, Mannelin M, Paturi M, Sundvall J, Valle TT, Uusitupa M, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group. Sustained reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention: follow-up of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lancet. 2006;368(9548):1673-9.

Lindström J, Peltonen M, Eriksson JG, Louheranta A, Fogelholm M, Uusitupa M, Tuomilehto J. High-fibre, low-fat diet predicts long-term weight loss and decreased type 2 diabetes risk: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Diabetologia. 2006;49(5):912-20.

Pérez-Jiménez F, López-Miranda J, Pinillos MD, Gómez P, Paz-Rojas E, Montilla P, Marín C, Velasco MJ, Blanco-Molina A, Jiménez Perepérez JA, Ordovás JM. A Mediterranean and a high-carbohydrate diet improve glucose metabolism in healthy young persons. Diabetologia. 2001 Nov;44(11):2038-43.

Salmerón J, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rimm EB, Willett WC. Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jun;73(6):1019-26. PMID: 11382654

Shah M, Adams-Huet B, Brinkley L, Grundy SM, Garg A. Lipid, glycemic, and insulin responses to meals rich in saturated, cis-monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3 and n-6) fatty acids in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007 Dec;30(12):2993-8. Epub 2007 Sep 5.

St-Onge MP, Bourque C, Jones PJ, Ross R, Parsons WE. Medium- versus long-chain triglycerides for 27 days increases fat oxidation and energy expenditure without resulting in changes in body composition in overweight women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Jan;27(1):95-102.

Vessby B, Unsitupa M, Hermansen K, Riccardi G, Rivellese AA, Tapsell LC, Nälsén C, Berglund L, Louheranta A, Rasmussen BM, Calvert GD, Maffetone A, Pedersen E, Gustafsson IB, Storlien LH; KANWU Study. Substituting dietary saturated for monounsaturated fat impairs insulin sensitivity in healthy men and women: The KANWU Study. Diabetologia. 2001 Mar;44(3):312-9.

Ballesteros MN, Cabrera RM, Saucedo Mdel S, Fernandez ML. Dietary cholesterol does not increase biomarkers for chronic disease in a pediatric population from northern Mexico. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;80(4):855-61.

Djoussé L, Gaziano JM. Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the Physicians' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):964-9.

Goodrow EF, Wilson TA, Houde SC, Vishwanathan R, Scollin PA, Handelman G, Nicolosi RJ. Consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. J Nutr. 2006 Oct;136(10):2519-24.

Greene CM, Zern TL, Wood RJ, Shrestha S, Aggarwal D, Sharman MJ, Volek JS, Fernandez ML. Maintenance of the LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio in an elderly population given a dietary cholesterol challenge. J Nutr. 2005 Dec;135(12):2793-8.

Harman NL, Leeds AR, Griffin BA. Increased dietary cholesterol does not increase plasma low density lipoprotein when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet and weight loss. Eur J Nutr. 2008 Sep;47(6):287-93. Epub 2008 Aug 26. Erratum in: Eur J Nutr. 2008 Oct;47(7):408.

Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Manson JE, Ascherio A, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Spiegelman D, Speizer FE, Sacks FM, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women. JAMA. 1999 Apr 21; 281 (15): 1,387-1,394.

Knopp RH, Retzlaff B, Fish B, Walden C, Wallick S, Anderson M, Aikawa K, Kahn SE. Effects of insulin resistance and obesity on lipoproteins and sensitivity to egg feedings. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Aug 1; 23(8): 1,437-1,443.

Kritchevsky SB, Kritchevsky D. Egg consumption and coronary heart disease: An epidemiologic overview. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct; 19 (5 Suppl): 549S-555S.

McNamara DJ. The impact of egg limitations on coronary heart disease risk: Do the numbers add up? J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct; 19 (5 Suppl): 540S-548S.

Mutungi G, Ratliff J, Puglisi M, Torres-Gonzalez M, Vaishnav U, Leite JO, Quann E, Volek JS, Fernandez ML. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases plasma HDL cholesterol in overweight men consuming a carbohydrate-restricted diet. J Nutr. 2008 Feb;138(2):272-6.

Nakamura Y, Iso H, Kita Y, Ueshima H, Okada K, Konishi M, Inoue M, Tsugane S. Egg consumption, serum total cholesterol concentrations and coronary heart disease incidence: Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study. Br J Nutr. 2006 Nov;96(5):921-8.

Qureshi AI, Suri FK, Ahmed S, Nasar A, Divani AA, Kirmani JF. Regular egg consumption does not increase the risk of stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Med Sci Monit. 2007 Jan;13(1):CR1-8. Epub 2006 Dec 18.

Reaven GM, Abbasi F, Bernhart S, Coulston A, Darnell B, Dashti N, Kim H, Kulkarni K, Lamendola C, McLaughlin T, Osterlund L, Schaff P, Segrest J. Insulin resistance, dietary cholesterol and cholesterol concentration in postmenopausal women. Metabolism. 2001 May; 50 (5): 594-597.

Tanasescu M, Cho E, Manson JE, Hu FB. Dietary fat and cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun;79(6):999-1005.

Tannock LR, O'Brien KD, Knopp RH, Retzlaff B, Fish B, Wener MH, Kahn SE, Chait A. Cholesterol feeding increases C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A levels in lean insulin-sensitive subjects. Circulation. 2005 Jun 14; 111(23): 3,058-3,062.

Weggemans RM, Zock PL, Katan MB. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans: A meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 May; 73(5): 885-891.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. In: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. The National Academies Press; 2005: 481-485. Accessed online: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490.

Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 2002 Nov 27; 288 (20): 2, 569-2, 578. Review. PMID: 12444864.

DLM: Carbohydrate, Protein and Fiber

Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III)National Cholesterol Education Program, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Insitutes of Health, NIH Publication No. 02-5215, September 2002

Bautista LE, Herran OF, Serrano C. Effects of palm oil and dietary cholesterol on plasma lipoproteins: results from a dietary crossover trial in free-living subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001 Sep; 55(9): 748-54.

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De Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, Monjaud I, Delaye J, Mamelle N. Mediterranean Diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction, final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation. 1999; 99: 779-785.

Denke MA, Sempos CT, Grundy SM. Excess body weight. An underrecognized contributor to high blood cholesterol levels in white American men. Arch Int Med. 1993; 153: 1,093-1,103.

Ginsberg HN, Kris-Etherton P, Dennis B, Elmer PJ, Ershow A, Lefevre M, Pearson T, Roheim P, Ramakrishnan R, Reed R, Stewart K, Stewart P, Phillips K, Anderson N. The effects of reducing saturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy subjects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998; 18: 441-449.

Howell WH, McNamara DJ, Tosca MA, Smith BT, Gaines JA. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein responses to dietary fat and cholesterol: meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997; 65:1747 1764.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner D, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Parker TL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. The effect of combining plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and almonds in treating hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism. 2003 Nov; 52(11): 1478-83

Johnson CL, Rifkind BM, Sempos CT, Carroll MD, Bachorik PS, Briefel RR, Grodon DJ, Burt VL, Brown CD, Lippel L, Cleeman JL. Declining serum cholesterol levels among US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. JAMA 1993 Jun 16; 269 (23): 3,002-3,008.

Judd JT, Baer DJ, Kris-Etherton P, Muesing RA, Iwane M. Dietary cis and trans monounsaturated and saturated FA and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in men. Lipids. 2002 Feb;37(2):123-31.

Kris-Etherton PM, Zhao G, Pelkman CL, Fishell VK, Coval SM. Beneficial effects of a diet high in monounsaturated fatty acids on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Nutr in Clin Care. 2000;3:153-162.

Kris-Etherton PM. Summary of the Scientific Conference on Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health: Conference Summary from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2001.103: 1,034-1,039.

Lichtenstein AH, Ausman LM, Jalbert SM, Vilella-Bach M, Jauhiainen M, McGladdery S, Erkkila AT, Ehnholm C, Frohlich J, Schaefer EJ. Efficacy of a Therapeutic Lifestyle Change/Step 2 diet in moderately hypercholesterolemic middle-aged and elderly female and male subjects. Journal of Lipid Research. 2002 Feb; 43(2): 264-73.

Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester AD, Katan MB. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003 May; 77(5): 1146-55.

Obarzanek E, Sacks FM, Vollmer WM, Bray GA, Miller ER 3rd, Lin PH, Karanja NM, Most-Windhauser MM, Moore TJ, Swain JF, Bales CW, Proschan MA; DASH Research Group. Effects on blood lipids of a blood pressure-lowering diet: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001. 74(1):80-9.

Yu-Poth S, Zhao G, Etherton T, Naglak M, Jonnalagadda S, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Step I and Step II dietary intervention programs on cardiovascular disease risk factors: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:632-646.

Bazzano, L.A., He, J., Ogden, L.G., Loria, C.M., Whelton, P.K. Dietary fiber intake and reduced risk of coronary heart disease in us men and women. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163:1897-1904.

Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Giovannucci E, Rimm E, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. Whole-grain consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: Results from the Nurses’ Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 70: 412-419.

Liu, S., Buring, J., Sesso, H., Rimm, E., Willett, W., Manson, J. A prospective study of dietary fiber intake and risk of cardiovascular disease among women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002,39:49-56

Merchant AT, Hu FB, Spieglman D, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Ascherio A. Dietary fiber reduces peripheral arterial disease risk in men. J Nutr. 2003;133: 3658-3663.

Pereira MA, O'Reilly E, Augustsson K, Fraser GE, Goldbourt U, Heitmann BL, Hallmans G, Knekt P, Liu S, Pietinen P, Spiegelman D, Stevens J, Virtamo J, Willett WC, Ascherio A.. Dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164: 370-376.

Van Horn L. Fiber, lipids, and coronary heart disease. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation. 1997;95:2701-2704.

Wolk J, Mason JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Long-term intake of dietary fiber and decreased risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA. 1999;281:1998-2004.

Brown L, Rosner B, Willett WW, Sacks FM. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Am J of Clin Nutr. 1999;69:30-42

Davy BM, Davy KP, Ho RC, Beske SD, Davrath LR, Melby CL. High-fiber oat cereal compared with wheat cereal consumption favorable alters LDL-cholesterol subclass and particle numbers in middle-aged and older men. Am J Clin Nutr . 2002; 76:351-358.

Jenkins, D., Kendall, C., Vuksan, V., Vidgen, E., Parker, T., Faulkner, D., Mehling, C., Garsetti, M., Testolin, G., Cunnane, S., Ryan M., Corey, P. Soluble fiber intake at a dose approved by the us food and drug administration for a claim of health benefits: serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease assessed in a randomized controlled crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:834-9.

Ludwig DS, Pereira MA, Kroenke CH, Hilner JE, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Jacobs DR Jr. Dietary fiber, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults. JAMA 1999;99:1539-1546.

Saltzman E, Das SK, Lichtenstein AC, Dallal GE, Corrales A, Schaefer EJ, Greenberg AS, Roberts SB. An oat-containing hypocaloric diet reduces systolic blood pressure and improves lipid profile beyond effects of weight loss in men and women. J Nutr. 2001;131:1465-1470.

Van Horn L, Liu K, Gerber J, Garside D, Schiffer L, Gernhofer N, Greenland P. Oats and soy in lipid-lowering diets for women with hypercholesterolemia: is there synergy? J Am Diet Assoc. 2001; 101:1319-1325.

Anderson JW, Garrity TF, Wood CL, Whitis SE, Smith BM, Oeltgen PR. Prospective, randomized, controlled comparison of the effects of low-fat and low-fat plus high-fiber diets on serum lipid concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992 Nov; 56(5): 887-894.

Anderson JW, O'Neal DS, Riddell-Mason S, Floore TL, Dillon DW, Oeltgen PR. Post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, and lipoprotein responses to high-and low-fiber diets. Metabolism. 1995 Jul; 44(7): 848-844.

Davy BM, Melby CL, Beske SD, Ho RC, Davrath LR, Davy KP. Oat consumption does not affect resting casual and ambulatory 24-h arterial blood pressure in men with high-normal blood pressure to stage 1 hypertension. J Nutr. 2002; 132: 394-398.

Glore SR, Van Treeck D, Knehans AW, Guild M. Soluble fiber and serum lipids: a literature review. J Am Diet Assoc 1994; 94: 425-436.

Jacobs DR Jr., Pereira MA, Stumpf K, Pins JJ, Adlercreutz H. Whole grain food intake elevates serum enterolactone. Br J Nutr. 2002 Aug; 88 (2): 111-116. PMID: 12144714.

Juntunen, KS, Laaksonen DE, Poutanen KS, Niskanen LK, Mykkanen HM. High-fiber rye bread and insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 77: 385-391.

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King DE, Egan BM, Woolson RF, Mainous AG 3rd, Al-Solaiman Y, Jesri A. Effect of a high-fiber diet vs a fiber-supplemented diet on C-reactive protein level. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Mar 12;167(5):502-6. PMID: 17353499

Lairon D, Arnault N, Bertrais S, Planells R, Clero E, Hercberg S, Boutron-Ruault MC. Dietary fiber intake and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in French adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Dec; 82 (6): 1,185-1,194.

McKeown NC, Meigs JB, Liu S, et al. Carbohydrate nutrition, insulin resistance, and the prevalance of the metabolic syndrome in the Framingham offspring cohort, Diabetes Care. 2004; 27: 538-546.

Mozaffarian D, Kumanyika SK, Lemaitre RN, Olson JL, Burke GL, Siscovick DS. Cereal, fruit, and vegetable fiber intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals. JAMA. 2003 Apr 2;289(13):1659-66.

Pereira MA, O' Reilly, Augustsson K, Fraser GE, Goldbourt U, Pietinen P, Spiegelman D, Stevens J, Virtamo J, Willett WC, Ascherio A. Dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Feb 23;164(4):370-6.

Pins JJ, Geleva D, Keenan JM, Frazel C, O'Connor PJ, Cherney LM. Do whole-grain oat cereals reduce the need for antihypertensive medications and improve blood pressure control? J Fam Practice. 2002; 51 (4): 353-359.

Pittaway JK, Ahuja KD, Cehun M, Chronopoulos A, Robertson IK, Nestel PJ, Ball MJ. Dietary supplementation with chickpeas for at least five weeks results in small but significant reductions in serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols in adult women and men. Ann Nutr Metab. 2006; 50(6): 512-518. Epub 2006 Dec 21. PMID: 17191025.

Qi L, Vam Dam RM, Liu S, Franz M, Mantzoros C, Hu FB. Whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber intakes and markers of systemic inflammation in diabetic women. Diabetics Care. 29: 207-211, 2006.

Ripsin CM, Keenan JM, Jacobs DR Jr, Elmer PJ, Welch RR, Van Horn L, Liu K, Turnbull WH, Thye FW, Kestin M, et al. Oat products and lipid lowering: A meta-analysis. JAMA. 1992 Jun 24; 267(24): 3,317-3,325. Erratum in: JAMA. 1992; 268(21): 3,074.

Alles MS, deRoos NM, Bakx JC, van de Lisdonk E, Zock PL, Hautvast GA. Consumption of fructooligosaccharides does not favorably affect blood glucose and serum lipid concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jan; 69 (1): 64-69.

Birketvedt GS, Aaseth J, Florholmen JR, Ryttig K. Long-term effect of fibre supplement and reduced energy intake on body weight and blood lipids in overweight subjects. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2000; 43 (4): 129-132.

Demark-Wahnefried W, Bowering J, Cohen PS. Reduced serum cholesterol with dietary change using fat-modified and oat bran supplemented diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 1990 Feb;90(2):223-9. PMID: 2154513

Frape DL, Jones AM. Chronic and postprandial responses of plasma insulin, glucose and lipids in volunteers given dietary fibre supplements. Br J Nutr. 1995 May; 73 (5): 733-751. PMID: 762659.

Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Vuksan V, Vidgen E, Parker T, Faulkner D, Mehling CC, Garsetti M, Testolin G, Cunnane SC, Ryan MA, Corey PN. Soluble fiber intake at a dose approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for a claim of health benefits: serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease assessed in a randomized controlled crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 75: 834-839.

Jenkins DJ, Hegele RA, Jenkins AL, Connelly PW, Hallak K, Bracci P, Kashtan H, Corey P, Pintilia M, Stern H, et al. The apolipoprotein E gene and the serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to dietary fiber. Metabolism. 1993 May;42(5):585-93. PMID: 838

Kashtan H, Stern HS, Jenkins DJ, Jenkins AL, Hay K, Marcon N, Minkin S, Bruce WR. Wheat-bran and oat-bran supplements' effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992 May;55(5):976-80. PMID: 1315121

Keenan JM, Wenz JB, Myers S, Ripsin C, Huang ZQ. Randomized, controlled, crossover trial of oat bran in hypercholesterolemic subjects. J Fam Pract. 1991 Dec;33(6):600-8. PMID: 166053

King DE, Egan BM, Woolson RF, Mainous AG 3rd, Al-Solaiman Y, Jesri A. Effect of a high-fiber diet vs a fiber-supplemented diet on C-reactive protein level. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Mar 12;167(5):502-6. PMID: 17353499

Kirsten R, Heintz B, Nelson K, Oremek G, Speck U. Influence of two guar preparations on glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol and triglycerides in patients with diabetes mellitus. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1992 Dec; 30 (12): 582-586. PMID: 1335441.

Knopp RH, Superko HR, Davidson M, Insull W, Dujovne CA, Kwiterovich PO, Zavoral JH, Graham K, O'Connor RR, Edelman DA. Long-term blood cholesterol-lowering effects of a dietary fiber supplement. Am J Prev Med. 1999 Jul;17(1):18-23. PMID: 10429748

Nami R, Gallo V, Pavese G, Panza F, Gennari C. Antihypertensive activity of a vegetable fibre preparation: a preliminary, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995 Oct;49 Suppl 3:S201-6. No abstract available. PMID: 8549524

Nicolosi R, Bell SJ, Bistrian BR, Greenberg I, Forse RA, Blackburn GL. Plasma lipid changes after supplementation with beta-glucan fiber from yeast. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Aug;70(2):208-12. PMID: 10426696

Robitaille J, Fontaine-Bisson B, Couture P, Tchernof A, Vohl MC. Effect of an oat bran-rich supplement on the metabolic profile of overweight premenopausal women. Ann Nutr Metab. 2005 May-Jun;49(3):141-8. Epub 2005 May 24. PMID: 1594215

Rossner S, von Zweigbergk D, Ohlin A, Ryttig K. Weight reduction with dietary fibre supplements. Results of two double-blind randomized studies. Acta Med Scand. 1987; 222 (1) :83-88. PMID: 2820202.

Ryttig KR, Tellnes G, Haegh L, Boe E, Fagerthun H. A dietary fibre supplement and weight maintenance after weight reduction: a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled long-term trial. Int J Obes. 1989; 13 (2):165-171.

Schwab U, Louheranta A, Torronen A, Uusitupa M. Impact of sugar beet pectin and polydextrose on fasting and postprandial glycemia and fasting concentrations of serum total and lipoprotein lipids in middle-aged subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Sep; 60(9): 1,073-1,080. Epub 2006 Mar 8. PMID: 16523204.

Shane JM, Walker PM. Corn bran supplementation of a low-fat controlled diet lowers serum lipids in men with hypercholesterolemia. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995 Jan;95(1):40-5. PMID: 7798579

Sola R, Godas G, Ribalta J, Vallve JC, Girona J, Anguera A, Ostos M, Recalde D, Salazar J, Caslake M, Martin-Lujan F, Salas-Salvado J, Masana L. Effects of soluble fiber (Plantago ovata husk) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in men with ischemic heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr; 85 (4): 1,157-1,163. PMID: 17413119.

Solum TT, Ryttig KR, Solum E, Larsen S. The influence of a high-fibre diet on body weight, serum lipids and blood pressure in slightly overweight persons. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation with diet and fibre tablets (DumoVital). Int J Obes. 1987; 11 Suppl. 1: 67-71.

Stasse-Wolthuis M, Albers HF, van Jeveren JG, Wil de Jong J, Hautvast JG,
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Tai ES, Fok AC, Chu R, Tan CE. A study to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with soluble fibre (Minolest) on lipid levels in normal subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1999 Mar;28(2):209-13. PMID: 10497668

Vuksan V, Jenkins DJ, Spadafora P, Sievenpiper JL, Owen R, Vidgen E, Brighenti F, Josse R, Leiter LA, Bruce-Thompson C. Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. A randomized controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care. 1999 Jun; 22 (6): 913-919.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 2002 Nov 27; 288 (20): 2, 569-2, 578. Review. PMID: 12444864.

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. In: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. The National Academies Press; 2005: 481-485. Accessed online: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490.

Cardioprotective Diet and Other Dietary Components

DLM: Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Bucher HC, Hengstler P, Schindler C, Meier G. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med. 2002 Mar; 112(4): 298-304.

Burr ML, Ashfield-Watt PA, Dunstan FD, Fehily AM, Breay P, Ashton T, Zotos PC, Haboubi NA, Elwood PC.Lack of benefit of dietary advice to men with angina: results of a controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;57(2):193-200.

Burr, ML. Secondary prevention of CHD in UK men: The Diet and Reinfarction Trial and its sequel. Proc Nutr Soc. 2007 Feb; 66(1): 9-15. Review.

Christensen JH, Riahi S, Schmidt EB, Mølgaard H, Kirstein Pedersen A, Heath F, Cosedis Nielsen J, Toft E. n-3 Fatty acids and ventricular arrhythmias in patients with ischaemic heart disease and implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Europace. 2005 Jul; 7(4): 338-344.

Erkkila AT, Lehto S, Pyorala K, and Uusitupa MIJ. N-3 fatty acids and five-year risks of death and cardiovascular disease events in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2003 July; 78 (1): 65-71.

Erkkila AT, Lichtenstein AH, Mozaffarian D, Herrington DM. Fish intake is associated with a reduced progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep; 80(3): 626-632

Erkkilä AT, Matthan NR, Herrington DM, Lichtenstein AH. Higher plasma docosahexaenoic acid is associated with reduced regression of coronary atherosclerosis in women with CAD. J Lipid Res. 2006; 47: 2,814-2,819.

Albert CM, Campos H, Stampfer MJ, Ridker PM, Manson JE, Willett WC, Ma J. Blood levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and the risk of sudden death. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346 (15): 1,113-1,118.

Albert CM, Hennekens CH, O’Donnell CJ, Ajani UA, Carey FJ, Willett WC, Riskin JN, Manson JE. Fish consumption and risk of sudden cardiac death. JAMA. 1998; 279: 23-28.

Daviglus ML, Samler J, Orencia AJ, Dyer AR, Liu P et al. Fish consumption and the 30-year risk of fatal myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1997; 336: 1,046-1,053.

Folsom AR, Demissie Z. Fish intake, marine omega-3 fatty acids, and mortality in a cohort of postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol. 2004, Nov 15; 160(10): 1005-1010.

Lemaitre RN, King IB, Mozaffarian D, Kuller LH, Tracy RP, Siscovick DS. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fatal ischemic heart disease, and nonfatal myocardial infarction in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb; 77 (2): 319-325.

Mozaffarian D, Ascherio A, Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Siscovick DS, Rimm EB. Interplay between different polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Circulation. 2005 Jan 18; 111(2): 157-164. Epub 2005 Jan 3.

Brouwer IA, Heeringa J, Geleijnse JM, Zock PL, Witteman JC. Intake of very long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish and incidence of atrial fibrillation. The Rotterdam Study. Am Heart J. 2006 Apr; 151 (4): 857-862. PMID: 16569549.

Chrysohoou C, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Skoumas J, Krinos X, Chloptsios Y, Nikolaou V, Stefanadis C. Long-term fish consumption is associated with protection against arrhythmia in healthy persons in a Mediterranean region--the ATTICA study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 May; 85 (5): 1,385-1,391.

Frost L, Vestergaard P. n-3 Fatty acids consumed from fish and risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter: the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 81: 50-54.

Mozaffarian D, Psaty BM, Rimm EB, Lemaitre RN, Burke GL, Lyles MF, Lefkowitz D, Siscovick DS. Fish intake and risk of incident atrial fibrillation. Circulation, 2004 Jul 27; 110 (4): 368-373. Epub 2004 Jul 19. PMID: 15262826.

Ebbesson SOE, Risica PM, Ebbesson LOE, Kennish JM. Eskimos have CHD despite high consumption of omega-3 fatty acids: The Alaska Siberia project. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Sep; 64(4): 387-395.PMID: 16277122

Ebbesson SO, Roman MJ, Devereux RB, Kaufman D, Fabsitz RR, Maccluer JW, Dyke B, Laston S, Wenger CR, Comuzzie AG, Romenesko T, Ebbesson LO, Nobmann ED, Howard BV. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids is not associated with a reduction in carotid atherosclerosis: The Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease in Alaska Natives study. Atherosclerosis. 2007 Dec 3. [Epub ahead of print].

Iso H, Kobayashi M, Ishihara J, Sasaki S, Okada K, Kita Y, Kokubo Y, Tsugane S; JPHC Study Group. Intake of fish and n3 fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese: The Japan Public Health Center-Based (JPHC) Study Cohort I. Circulation. 2006; 113(2): 195-202.

Järvinen R, Knekt P, Rissanen H, Reunanen A. Intake of fish and long-chain n-3 fatty acids and the risk of coronary heart mortality in men and women. Br J Nutr. 2006 Apr; 95 (4): 824-829.

Nakamura Y, Ueshima H, Okamura T, Kadowaki T, Hayakawa T, Kita Y, Tamaki S, Okayama A; NIPPON DATA80 Research Group. Association between fish consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Japan: NIPPON DATA80, 1980-99. Am J Med. 2005 Mar; 118(3): 239-245.

Oomen CM, Feskens EJ, Rasanen L, Fidanza F, Nissinen AM, Menotti A, Kok FJ, Krombout D. Fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality in Finland, Italy, and The Netherlands. Am J Epid. 2000; 151: 999-1,006.

Baylin A, Kabagambe EK, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Campos H. Adipose tissue a-linolenic acid and nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in Costa Rica. Circulation. 2003 Apr; 107(12): 1,586-1,591.

De Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, Monjaud I, Delaye J, Mamelle N. Mediterranean Diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction, final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation. 1999; 99: 779-785.

Albert CM, Kyungwon O, Whang W, Manson JE, Chae CU, Stampfer MF, Willett WC, Hu FB. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid intake and risk of sudden cardiac death and coronary heart disease. Circulation. 2005; 112: 3,232-3,238.

Djoussé L, Rautaharju PM, Hopkins PN, Whitsel EA, Arnett DK, Eckfeldt JH, Province MA, Ellison RC; Investigators of the NHLBI Family Heart Study. Dietary linolenic acid and adjusted QT and JT intervals in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 May 17; 45 (10): 1,716-1,722.

Lemaitre RN, King IB, Mozaffarian D, Kuller LH, Tracy RP, Siscovick DS. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fatal ischemic heart disease, and nonfatal myocardial infarction in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb; 77 (2): 319-325.

Rastogi T, Reddy KS, Vaz M, Spiegelman D, Prabhakaran D, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A. Diet and risk of ischemic heart disease in India. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Apr; 79(4): 582-592. PMID: 15051601

Brouwer IA, Zock PL, Camm AJ, Böcker D, Hauer RN, Wever EF, Dullemeijer C, Ronden JE, Katan MB, Lubinski A, Buschler H, Schouten EG; SOFA Study Group. Effect of fish oil on ventricular tachyarrhythmia and death in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators: The Study on Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Ventricular Arrhythmia (SOFA) randomized trial. JAMA. 2006 Jun 14; 295(22): 2613-2619.

Bucher HC, Hengstler P, Schindler C, Meier G. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med. 2002 Mar; 112(4): 298-304.

Burr ML, Ashfield-Watt PA, Dunstan FD, Fehily AM, Breay P, Ashton T, Zotos PC, Haboubi NA, Elwood PC.Lack of benefit of dietary advice to men with angina: results of a controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;57(2):193-200.

Macchia A, Levantesi G, Franzosi MG, Geraci E, Maggioni AP, Marfisi R, Nicolosi GL, Schweiger C, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Valagussa F, Marchioli R. GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction, total mortality and sudden death in patients with myocardial infarction treated with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The Eur J Heart Fail. 2005; 7: 904-909.

Marchioli R, Levantesi G, Macchia A, Maggioni AP, Marfisi RM, Silletta MG, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Valugussa F. Antiarrhythmic mechanisms of n-3 PUFA and the results of the GISSI-Prevenzione Trial. J Membrane Biol. 2005; 206: 117-128.

Nilsen DW, Albrektsen G, Landmark K, Moen S, Aarsland T, Woie L. Effects of a high-dose concentrate of n-3 fatty acids or corn oil introduced early after an acute myocardial infarction on serum triacylglycerol and HDL cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jul; 74(1): 50-56.

Raitt MH, Connor WE, Morris C, Kron J, Halperin B, Chugh SS, McClelland J, Cook J, MacMurdy K, Swenson R, Connor SL, Gerhard G, Kraemer DF, Oseran D, Marchant C, Calhoun D, Shnider R, McAnulty J. Fish oil supplementation and risk of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation in patients with implantable defibrillators: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005 Jun 15; 293(23): 2884-2891. PMID: 15956633

Yokoyama M, Origasa H. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): A randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 2007; 369: 1,090-1,098.

Baylin A, Kabagambe EK, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Campos H. High 18:2 trans-fatty acids in adipose tissue are associated with increased risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in Costa Rican adults. J Nutr 2003; 133: 1186-91.

Lemaitre RN, King IB, Sotoodehnia N, Rea TD, Raghunathan TE, Rice KM, Lumley TS, Knopp RH, Cobb LA, Copass MK, Siscovick DS. Red blood cell membrane alpha-linolenic acid and the risk of sudden cardiac arrest. Metabolism. 2009 Apr;58(4):534-40.

Virtanen JK, Mozaffarian D, Chiuve SE, Rimm EB. Fish consumption and risk of major chronic disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1618-25.

Wang C, Harris WS, Chung M, Lichtenstein AH, Balk EM, Kupelnick B, Jordan HS, Lau J. n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):5-17.

He K, Song Y, Daviglus ML, Liu K, Van Horn L, Dyer AR, Greenland P. Accumulated evidence on fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.Circulation. 2004 Jun 8;109(22):2705-11. PubMed PMID: 15184295

Järvinen R, Knekt P, Rissanen H, Reunanen A. Intake of fish and long-chain n-3 fatty acids and the risk of coronary heart mortality in men and women.Br J Nutr. 2006 Apr;95(4):824-9.

Konig A, Bouzan C, Cohen JT, et al. A quantitative analysis of fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality. Am J Prev Med. Nov 2005;29(4):335-346.

Lankinen M, Schwab U, Erkkilä A, Seppänen-Laakso T, Hannila ML, Mussalo H, Lehto S, Uusitupa M, Gylling H, Oresic M. Fatty fish intake decreases lipids related to inflammation and insulin signaling--a lipidomics approach. PLoS One. 2009;4(4):e5258. Epub 2009 Apr 23.

Lara JJ, Economou M, Wallace AM, Rumley A, Lowe G, Slater C, Caslake M, Sattar N, Lean ME. Benefits of salmon eating on traditional and novel vascular risk factors in young, non-obese healthy subjects. Atherosclerosis. 2007 Jul; 193(1): 213-221. Epub 2006 Oct 27.

Lindqvist HM, Langkilde AM, Undeland I, Sandberg AS. Herring (Clupea harengus) intake influences lipoproteins but not inflammatory and oxidation markers in overweight men. Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb;101(3):383-90. Epub 2008 Jul 18.

Mozaffarian D. Fish and n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of fatal coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1991S-6S.

Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB. Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefits. JAMA. 2006 Oct 18;296(15):1885-99.

Panagiotakos DB, Zeimbekis A, Boutziouka V, Economou M, Kourlaba G, Toutouzas P, Polychronopoulos E. Long-term fish intake is associated with better lipid profile, arterial blood pressure, and blood glucose levels in elderly people from Mediterranean islands (MEDIS epidemiological study). Med Sci Monit. 2007 Jul;13(7):CR307-12.

Panagiotakos DB, Antonogeorgos G, Papadimitriou A, Anthracopoulos MB, Papadopoulos M, Konstantinidou M, Fretzayas A, Priftis KN. Breakfast cereal is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity among 10-12-year-old children: the PANACEA study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 Nov;18(9):606-12.

Seierstad SL, Seljeflot I, Johansen O, Hansen R, Haugen M, Rosenlund G, Frøyland L, Arnesen H. Dietary intake of differently fed salmon; the influence on markers of human atherosclerosis. Eur J Clin Invest. 2005 Jan;35(1):52-9.

Streppel MT, Ocké MC, Boshuizen HC, Kok FJ, Kromhout D. Long-term fish consumption and n-3 fatty acid intake in relation to (sudden) coronary heart disease death: the Zutphen study. Eur Heart J. 2008 Aug;29(16):2024-30. Epub 2008 Jul 18.

Turunen AW, Verkasalo PK, Kiviranta H, Pukkala E, Jula A, Männistö S, Räsänen R, Marniemi J, Vartiainen T. Mortality in a cohort with high fish consumption. Int J Epidemiol. 2008 Oct;37(5):1008-17. Epub 2008 Jun 25.

Virtanen JK, Mursu J, Voutilainen S, Tuomainen TP. Serum long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of hospital diagnosis of atrial fibrillation in men. Circulation. 2009 Dec 8;120(23):2315-21. Epub 2009 Nov 23.PMID: 19933935

Whelton SP, He J, Whelton PK, Muntner P. Meta-analysis of observational studies on fish intake and coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 2004;93(9):1119-23.

Yamagishi K, Iso H, Date C, Fukui M, Wakai K, Kikuchi S, Inaba Y, Tanabe N, Tamakoshi A; Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk Study Group. Fish, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and mortality from cardiovascular diseases in a nationwide community-based cohort of Japanese men and women. The JACC (Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk) Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Sep 16;52(12):988-96.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Burr ML, Ashfield-Watt PA, Dunstan FD, Fehily AM, Breay P, Ashton T, Zotos PC, Haboubi NA, Elwood PC.Lack of benefit of dietary advice to men with angina: results of a controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb; 57(2):193-200.

Burr, ML. Secondary prevention of CHD in UK men: The Diet and Reinfarction Trial and its sequel. Proc Nutr Soc. 2007 Feb; 66 (1): 9-15. Review.

Harris WS. Expert opinion: omega-3 fatty acids and bleeding-cause for concern? Am J Cardiol. 2007 Mar 19; 99 (6A): 44C-46C. Epub 2006 Nov 29. Review.

Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ; American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease [published correction appears in Circulation 2003;107:512]. Circulation. 2002; 106: 2, 747-2, 757.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). Panel on Macronutrients, Panel on the Definition of Dietary Fiber, Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients, Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. National Academies Press. Washington DC, 2005. Accessed online:
http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?info_center=4&tax_level=4&tax_subject=256&topic_id=1342&level3_id=5141&level4_id=10588.

Methylmercury. Food Safety; Product Information. US Food and Drug Administration. Accessed online: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/Product-SpecificInformation/Seafood/FoodbornePathogensContaminants/Methylmercury/default.htm.

Letter Regarding Dietary Supplement Health Claim for Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease. Docket No. 91N-0103. US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements, October 31, 2000, 1-34. Accessed online: http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/95s0316/95s-0316-Rpt0272-38-Appendix-D-Reference-F-FDA-vol205.pdf.

Skulas-Ray A, West SG, Davidson, MH, Kris-Etherton, PM. Omega-3 fatty acid concentrates in the treatment of moderate hypertriglyceridemia Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008 May; 9 (7): 1,237-1,248.

DLM: Plant Stanols And Sterols

Amundsen AL, Ntanios F, Put N, Ose L. Long-term compliance and changes in plasma lipids, plant sterols and carotenoids in children and parents with FH consuming plant sterol ester-enriched spread. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004; 58: 1,612-1,620.

Christiansen LI, Lahteenmaki PLA, Mannelin MR, Seppanen-Laakso TE, Hiltunen RVK, Yliruusi JK. Cholesterol-lowering effect of spreads enriched with microcrystalline plant sterols in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eur J Nutrition 2001 Apr; 40 (2): 66-73.

Colgan HA, Floyd S, Noone EJ, Gibney MJ, Roche HM. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables and a low-fat diet, with and without low-fat plant sterol-enriched spread consumption: effects on plasma lipoprotein and carotenoid metabolism. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2004 Dec; 17(6): 561-569.

Davidson MH, Maki KC, Umporowicz DM, Ingram KA, Dicklin MR, Schaefer E, Lane RW, McNamara JR, Ribaya-Mercado JD, Perrone G, Robins SJ, Franke WC. Safety and tolerability of esterified phytosterols administered in reduced-fat spread and salad dressing to healthy men and women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Aug; 20(4): 307-319.

De Jong A, Plat J, Bast A, Godschalk RW, Basu S, Mensink RP. Effects of plant sterol and stanol ester consumption on lipid metabolism, antioxidant status and markers of oxidative stress, endothelial function and low-grade inflammation in patients on current statin treatment. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb; 62(2): 263-273. Epub 2007 May 9.

Fassbender K, Lütjohann D, Dik MG, Bremmer M, König J, Walter S, Liu Y, Letièmbre M, von Bergmann K, Jonker C.Moderately elevated plant sterol levels are associated with reduced cardiovascular risk: The LASA study. Atherosclerosis. 2008 Jan; 196 (1): 283-288.

Gylling H, Hallikainen M, Raitakari OT, Laakso M, Vartiainen E, Salo P, Korpelainen V, Sundvall J, Miettinen TA. Long-term consumption of plant stanol and sterol esters, vascular function and genetic regulation. Br J Nutr. 2009 Jun; 101 (11): 1,688-1,695.

Helske S, Miettinen T, Gylling H, Mäyränpää M, Lommi J, Turto H, Werkkala K, Kupari M, Kovanen PT. Accumulation of cholesterol precursors and plant sterols in human stenotic aortic valves. J Lipid Res. 2008 Jul; 49 (7): 1,511-1,518.

Hendriks HFJ, Brink EJ, Meijer GW, Princen HMG, Ntanios FY. Safety of long-term consumption of plant sterol esters-enriched spread. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 May; 57(5): 681-692.

Homma Y, Ikeda I, Ishikawa T, Tateno M, Sugano M, Nakamura H. Decrease in plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein by plant stanol ester-containing spread: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition. 2003 Apr; 19 (4): 369-374.

Korpela R, Tuomilehto J, Högström P, Seppo L, Piironen V, Salo-Väänänen P, Toivo J, Lamberg-Allardt C, Kärkkäinen M, Outila T, Sundvall J, Vilkkilä S, Tikkanen MJ. Safety aspects and cholesterol-lowering efficacy of low-fat dairy products containing plant sterols. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 May; 60 (5): 633-642.

Lea LJ, Hepburn PA. Safety evaluation of phytosterol-esters. Part 9: Results of a European post-launch monitoring programme. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Aug;44 (8):1,213-1,222.

Maki KC, Davidson MH, Umporowicz DM, Schaefer EJ, Dicklin MR, Ingram KA, Chen S, McNamara JR, Gebhart BW, Ribaya-Mercado JD, Perrone G, Robins SJ, Franke WC. Lipid reponses to plant-sterol-enriched reduced-fat spreads incorporated into a National Cholesterol Education Program Step I diet. Am J Clin Nutr 2001 Jul; 74 (1): 33-43.

Mensink RP, Ebbing S, Lindhout M, Plat J, van Heugten MMA. Effects of plant stanol esters supplied in low-fat yoghurt on serum lipids and lipoproteins, non-cholesterol sterols and fat soluble antioxidant concentrations. Atherosclerosis 2002 Jan; 160(1):205-213.

Nestel P, Cehun M, Pomeroy S, Abbey M, Weldon G. Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters and non-esterified stanols in margarine, butter and low-fat foods. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001 Dec; 55 (12): 1,084-1,090.

Noakes M, Clifton P, Ntanios F, Shrapnel W, Record I, McInerney J. An increase in dietary carotenoids when consuming plant sterols or stanols is effective in maintaining plasma carotenoid concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75: 79-86.

Ntanios FY, Homma Y, Ushiro S. A spread enriched with plant sterol-esters lowers blood cholesterol and lipoproteins without affecting vitamins A and E in normal and hypercholesterolemic Japanese men and women. J Nutr. 2002; 132 (12): 3,650-3,655.

O'Neill FH, Sanders TA, Thompson GR. Comparison of efficacy of plant stanol ester and sterol ester: Short-term and longer-term studies. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Jul 4; 96 (1A): 29D-36D.

Quilez J, Rafecas M, Brufau G, Garcia-Lorda P, Megias I, Bullo M, Ruiz JA, Salas-Salvado J. Bakery products enriched with phytosterol esters, a-tocopherol and ß-carotene decrease plasma LDL-cholesterol and maintain plasma ß-carotene concentrations in normocholesterolemic men and women. J Nutr 2003 Oct; 133(10):3103-3109.

Raitakari OT, Salo P, Gylling H, Miettinen TA Plant stanol ester consumption and arterial elasticity and endothelial function. Br J Nutr. 2008; 100: 603-608.

Rajaratnam RA, Gylling H, Miettinen TA. Independent association of serum squalene and noncholesterol sterols with coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Apr; 35(5): 1,185-1,191.

Schiepers OJ, de Groot RH, van Boxtel MP, Jolles J, de Jong A, Lütjohann D, Plat J, Mensink RP. Consuming functional foods enriched with plant sterol or stanol esters for 85 weeks does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in hypercholesterolemic individuals. J Nutr. 2009 Jul; 139 (7): 1,368-1,373.

Silbernagel G, Fauler G, Renner W, Landl EM, Hoffmann MM, Winkelmann BR, Boehm BO, März W. The relationships of cholesterol metabolism and plasma plant sterols with the severity of coronary artery disease. J Lipid Res. 2009 Feb; 50 (2): 334-341.

Tuomilehto J, Tikkanen MJ, Högström P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Piironen V, Toivo J, Salonen JT, Nyyssönen K, Stenman UH, Alfthan H, Karppanen H. Safety assessment of common foods enriched with natural non-esterified plant sterols. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 May; 63 (5): 684-691.

Volpe R, Niittynen L, Korpela R, Sirtori C, Bucci A, Fraone N, Pazzucconi F. Effects of yoghurt enriched with plant sterols on serum lipids in patients with moderate hypercholesterolaemia. British Journal of Nutrition 2001 Aug; 86(2):233-239.

Weingärtner O, Lütjohann D, Ji S, Weisshoff N, List F, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K, Gertz K, König J, Schäfers HJ, Endres M, Böhm M, Laufs U. Vascular effects of diet supplementation with plant sterols. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Apr 22; 51 (16): 1,553-1,561.

Wilund KR, Yu L, Xu F, Vega GL, Grundy SM, Cohen JC, Hobbs HH. No association between plasma levels of plant sterols and atherosclerosis in mice and men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004 Dec; 24 (12): 2,326-2,332.

Windler E, Zyriax BC, Kuipers F, Linseisen J, Boeing H. Association of plasma phytosterol concentrations with incident coronary heart disease Data from the CORA study, a case-control study of coronary artery disease in women. Atherosclerosis. 2009 Mar; 203(1): 284-290.

Devaraj S, Jialal I, Vega-Lopez S. Plant sterol-fortified orange juice effectively lowers cholesterol levels in mildly hypercholesterolemic healthy individuals. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004; 24:e25-e28.

Gylling H, Radhakrishnan R, Miettinin TA. Reduction of serum cholesterol in postmenopausal women with previous myocardial infarction and cholesterol malabsorption induced by dietary sitostanol ester margarine: women and dietary sitostanol. Circulation;1997;96:4226-4231

Hallikainen MA, Sarkkinen ES, Uusitupa MI. Plant stanol esters affect serum cholesterol concentrations of hypercholesterolemic men and women in a dose-dependent manner. J Nutrition. 2000;130:767-776.

Miettinen TA, Puska P, Gylling H, Vanhanen H, Vartiainen E. Reduction of serum cholesterol with sitostanol-ester margarine in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. N Engl J Med. 1995; 333: 1,308-1,312.

Tikkanen MJ, Hogstrom P, Tuomilehto J, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi S, Sundvall J, and Karppanen H. Effect of a diet based on low-fat foods enriched with nonesterified plant sterols and mineral nutrients on serum cholesterol. Am J Cardiol 2001; 88:1157-1162.

Vanstone CA, Raeini-Sarjaz M, Parsons WE, Jones PJH. Unesterified plant sterols and stanols lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations equivalently in hypercholesterolemic persons. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76:1272-1278.

Blair SN, Capuzzi DM, Gottlieb SO, Nguyen T, Morgan JM, Cater NB. Incremental reduction of serum total cholesterol with the addition of plant stanol ester-containing spread to statin therapy. Am J Cardiol 2000; 86: 46-52.

Lichtenstein AH, Deckelbaum RJ. AHA Science Advisory. Stanol/sterol ester-containing foods and blood cholesterol levels. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association.. Circulation. 2001;103:1177-1179.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 2002 Nov 27; 288 (20): 2, 569-2, 578. Review. PMID: 12444864.

Katan MB, Grundy SM, Jones P, Law M, Miettinen T, Paoletti R; Stresa Workshop Participants. Efficacy and safety of plant stanols and sterols in the management of blood cholesterol levels. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Aug;78 (8): 965-978. Review. PMID: 12911045.

Patel SB. Plant Sterols and Stanols: Their Role in Health and Disease. J Clin Lipidol. 2008 Apr; 2 (2): S11-S19. PMID: 19343077; PMCID: PMC2390824.

DLM: Nuts

Hyson DA, Schneeman BO, Davis PA. Almonds and almond oil have similar effects on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in healthy men and women. Journal of Nutrition. 132(4):703-7, 2002.

Iwamoto, M., Imaizumi, K., Sato, M., Hirooka, K., Takeshita, A., and Kono, M. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2002) 56, 629–637

Kris-Etherton PM, Zhao G, Binkoski AE, Coval SM, Etherton TD. The effects of nuts on coronary heart disease risk. Nutr Rev. 2001;59:103-111.

Kris-Etherton PM. Summary of the Scientific Conference on Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health: Conference Summary from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2001.103: 1,034-1,039.

Lovejoy JC, Most MM, Lefevre M, Greenway FL, Rood JC. Effect of diets enriched in almonds on insulin action and serum lipids in adults with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76:1000-6. (Study 1: Healthy Adults)

Lovejoy JC, Most MM, Lefevre M, Greenway FL, Rood JC. Effect of diets enriched in almonds on insulin action and serum lipids in adults with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76:1000-6. (Study 2: Type 2 Diabetes)

Morgan WA, Clayshulte BJ. Pecans lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in people with normal lipid levels. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000;100:312-318.

Sabate, J., Haddad, E., Tanzman, J., Rajaram, S. Serum lipid response to the graduated enrichment of a Step I diet with almonds:a randomized feeding trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;77(6):1379-84.

Fraser GE. Nut consumption, lipids, and risk of coronary event. Clin Cardiol. 1999; 22 (Suppl III), 11-15. Review.

Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: Prospective cohort study. Nurses Health Study. BMJ 1998;317:1341-1345.

Kris-Etherton PM, Zhao G, Pelkman CL, Fishell VK, Coval SM. Beneficial effects of a diet high in monounsaturated fatty acids on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Nutr in Clin Care. 2000;3:153-162.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Wong JM, de Souza R, Emam A, Parker TL, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs. lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. JAMA. 2003 Jul 23; 290 (4): 502-510.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner D, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Parker TL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. The effect of combining plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and almonds in treating hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism. 2003 Nov; 52(11): 1478-83

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Faulkner DA, Nguyen T, Kemp T, Marchie A, Wong JM, de Souza R, Emam A, Vidgen E, Trautwein EA, Lapsley KG, Holmes C, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW, Singer W. Assessment of the longer-term effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods in hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Mar; 83 (3): 582-591.

Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Faulkner D, Vidgen E, Trautwein EA, Parker TL, Marchie A, Koumbridis G, Lapsley KG, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. A dietary portfolio approach to cholesterol reduction: Combined effects of plant sterols, vegetable proteins and viscous fibers in hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism. 2002; 51: 1596-1604.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Wong JM, de Souza R, Emam A, Parker TL, Vidgen E, Trautwein EA, Lapsley KG, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Singer W, Connelly PW. Direct comparison of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods with a statin in hypercholesterolemic participants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb; 81 (2): 380-387.

Jones PJ, Mahmoud RS, Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Vidgen E, Trautwein EA, Lapsley KG, Marchie A, Cunnane SC, Connelly PW. Effects of a diet high in plant sterols, vegetable proteins, and viscous fibers (dietary portfolio) on circulating sterol levels and red cell fragiliy in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Lipids. 2005; 40 (2): 169-174.

Lamarche B, Desroches S, Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Marchie A, Faulkner D, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Parker TL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. Combined effects of a dietary portfolio of plant sterols, vegetable protein, viscous fibre and almonds on LDL particle size. British Journal of Nutrition. 2004; 92: 657-663.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Parker TL, Connelly PW, Qian W, Haight JS, Faulkner D, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Spiller GA. Dose response of almonds on coronary heart disease risk factors: blood lipids, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, and pulmonary nitric oxide: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Circulation. 2002 Sep 10; 106 (11): 1,327-1,332. PMID: 12221048.

Spiller GA, Jenkins DJA, Cragen LN, et al. Effect of a diet high in monounsaturated fat from almonds on plasma cholesterol and lipoproteins. J Am Coll Nutrition. April 1992; 11(2): 126-130.

Spiller GA, Jenkins DJ, Bosello O, Gates JE, Cragen LN, Bruce B. Nuts and plasma lipids: An almond diet lowers LDL-C while preserving HDL-C. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 1998; 17 (3): 285-290.

Spiller, G.A., Miller, A., Olivera, K., Reynolds, J., Miller, B., Morse, S.J., Dewell, A., and Farquhar, J.W. Effects of plant-based diets high in raw or roasted almonds, or roasted almond butter on serum lipoproteins in humans. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2003; 22 (3): 195-200.

Abbey M, Noakes M, Belling GB, Nestel PJ. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. 1994. Am J Clin Nutr. 59 (5): 995-999.

Kurlandsky S, Stote K. Cardioprotective effects of chocolate and almond consumption in healthy women. Nutrition Research. 2006; 26(10): 509-516.

Wien MA, Sabate JM, Ikle DN, Cole SE, Kandeel FR. Almonds vs. complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003; 27(11): 1,365-1,372. Erratum in: Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Mar; 28 (3): 459.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Josse AR, Nguyen TH, Faulkner DA, Lapsley KG, Blumberg J. Almonds reduce biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in older hyperlipidemic subjects. J Nutr. 2008 May; 138(5): 908-913.

Gigleux I, Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Wong JM, de Souza R, Emam A, Parker TL, Trautwein EA, Lapsley KG, Connelly PW, Lamarche B. Comparison of a dietary portfolio diet of cholesterol-lowering foods and a statin on LDL particle size phenotype in hypercholesterolaemic participants. Br J Nutr. 2007 Jul 30; 1-8.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Josse AR, Wong JM, de Souza R, Emam A, Parker TL, Li TJ, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Singer W, Connelly PW. Direct comparison of dietary portfolio vs. statin on C-reactive protein. 2005. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 59 :851-860.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Nguyen TH, Teitel J, Marchie A, Chiu M, Taha AY, Faulkner DA, Kemp T, Wong JM, de Souza R, Emam A, Trautwein EA, Lapsley KG, Holmes C, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Singer W. Effect on hematologic risk factors for coronary heart disease of a cholesterol reducing diet. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr; 61 (4): 483-492.

Banel DK, Hu FB. Effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(1):56-63.

Bes-Rastrollo M, Sabaté J, Gómez-Gracia E, Alonso A, Martínez JA, Martínez-González MA. Nut consumption and weight gain in a Mediterranean cohort: The SUN study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15(1):107-116.

Bes-Rastrollo M, Wedick NM, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Li TY, Sampson L, Hu FB. Prospective study of nut consumption, long-term weight change, and obesity risk in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun;89(6):1913-9. Epub 2009 Apr 29.

Djoussé L, Rudich T, Gaziano JM. Nut consumption and risk of hypertension in US male physicians. Clin Nutr. 2009 Feb;28(1):10-4.

Gebauer SK, West SG, Kay CD, Alaupovic P, Bagshaw D, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of pistachios on cardiovascular disease risk factors and potential mechanisms of action: a dose-response study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep;88(3):651-9.

Griel AE, Cao Y, Bagshaw DD, Cifelli AM, Holub B, Kris-Etherton PM. A macadamia nut-rich diet reduces total and LDL-cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women. J Nutr. 2008 Apr; 138 (4): 761-767.

Li TY, Brennan AM, Wedick NM, Mantzoros C, Rifai N, Hu FB. Regular consumption of nuts is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease in women with type 2 diabetes. J Nutr. Jul 2009; 139(7): 1,333-1,338.

Mukuddem-Petersen J, Stonehouse (Oosthuizen) W, Jerling JC, Hanekom SM, White Z. Effects of a high walnut and high cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome: a controlled feeding trial. British J Nutr. 2007; 97:1144-1153.

Olmedilla-Alonso B, Granado-Lorencio F, Herrero-Barbudo C, Blanco-Navarro I, Blázquez-García S, Pérez-Sacristán B. Consumption of restructured meat products with added walnuts has a cholesterol-lowering effect in subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Apr;27(2):342-8.

Phung OJ, Makanji SS, White CM, Coleman CI. Almonds have a neutral effect on serum lipid profiles: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 May;109(5):865-73.

Rajaram S, Haddad EH, Mejia A, Sabaté J. Walnuts and fatty fish influence different serum lipid fractions in normal to mildly hyperlipidemic individuals: a randomized controlled study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1657S-1663S.

Sabaté J, Cordero-Macintyre Z, Siapco G, Torabian S, Haddad E. Does regular walnut consumption lead to weight gain? Br J Nutr. 2005 Nov; 94 (5): 859-864.

Salas-Salvado J , Fernandez-Ballart J, Ros E, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Fito M, Estruch R ,Corella D, Fiol D, Gomez-Gracia E, Aros F, Flores G, Lapetra J, Lamuela-Raventos R, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Bullo M, Basora J, Covas M. Effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts on metabolic syndrome status; one-year results of the PREDIMED randomized trial. Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168(22):2449-2458.

Salas-Salvado J, Garcia-Arellano A, Estruch R, Marquez-Sandoval F, Corella D, Fiol M, Gómez-Gracia E, Viñoles E, Arós F, Herrera C, Lahoz C, Lapetra J, Perona JS, Muñoz-Aguado D, Martínez-González MA, Ros E; PREDIMED Investigators. Components of the Mediterranean-type food pattern and serum inflammatory markers among patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Eur J Clin Nutr. May 2008; 62 (5): 651-659.

Sheridan MJ, Cooper JN, Erario M, Cheifetz CE. Pistachio nut consumption and serum lipid levels. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Apr; 26 (2): 141-148.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 2002 Nov 27; 288 (20): 2, 569-2, 578. Review. PMID: 12444864.

US Food and Drug Administration. US Department of Health and Human Services. Qualified Claims About Cardiovascular Risk: Nuts and Heart Disease. Docket No. 02P-0505. 7/14/2003. Accessed online December 15, 2010: www.fda.gov/Food/LabelingNutrition/LabelClaims/QualifiedHealthClaims/ucm073992.htm.

DLM: Alcohol

Di Castelnuovo A, Rotondo S, Iacoviello L, Donati MB, de Gaetano g. Meta-analysis of wine and beer consumption in relation to vascular risk. Circulation. 2002; 105:2836-2844.

Goldberg IJ, Mosca L, Paino MR, Fisher EA. AHA Science Advisory: Wine and your heart: a science advisory for healthcare professionals for the Nutrition Committee, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Council on Cardiovascular Nursing of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2001; 103: 472-475.

Gronbaek M, Deis A, Sorensen TI, Becker U, Schnohr P, Jensen G. Mortality associated with moderate intakes of wine, beer or spirits. BMJ. 1995;310: 1,165-1,169.

Hein HO, Suadicani P, Gyntelberg F. Alcohol consumption, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, and risk of ischaemic heart disease: six year follow up in the Copenhagen Study. BMJ. 1996;312:736-741.

Mukamal KJ, Conigrave KM, Mittleman MA, Camargo CA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Rimm EB. Roles of drinking pattern and type of alcohol consumed in coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348:1 09-18.

Rimm EB, Giovanncci EL, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, Rosner B, Stamfer MJ. Prospective study of alcohol consumption and risk of coronary disease in men. Lancet. 1991; 338 (8,765): 464-468.

Romelsjo A, Leifman A. Association between alcohol consumption and mortality, mycardial infarction and stroke in a 25 year follow of 48,618 young Swedish men. BMJ. 1999; 319: 821-822.

Sesso HD, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, Gazaine JM. Seven year changes in alcohol consumption and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in men. Arch Int Med. 2000;160:2605-2612.

Tanasescu M, Hu FB, Willet WC, Stampfer MJ. Alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease among men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 38: 1,836-1,842.

Trevisan M, Schisterman E, Mennotti A, Farchi G, Conti S, Risk Factor and Life Expectancy Group. Drinkilng pattern and mortality: the Italian Risk Factor and Life Expectancy Pooling Project. Am Epidemiol 2001; 11:312-319.

Bagnardi, V., Zatonski, W., Scotti, L., La Veccha, C., & Corrao G. (2008). Does drinking pattern modify the effect of alcohol on the risk of coronary heart disease?: Evidence from a meta-analysis. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62, 615-619.

Britton A, McKee M. The relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease in
Eastern Europe: explaining the paradox. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000
May;54(5):328-32. Review.


Cleophas TJ. Wine, beer and spirits and the risk of myocardial infarction: a systematic review. Biomed Pharmacother. 1999;53(9):417-23.

Corrao, G., Rubbiati, L., Bagnardi, V., Zambon, A. & Poikolainen, K. (2000). Alcohol and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Addiction, 95, 1505-1523.

Di Castelnuovo A, Rotondo S, Iacoviello L, Donati MB, De Gaetano G. Meta-analysis of wine and beer consumption in relation to vascular risk. Circulation. 2002 Jun 18;105(24):2836-44.

Rimm EB, Williams P, Fosher K, Criqui M, Stampher MJ. Moderate alcohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of effects on lipids and haemostatic factors. BMJ 1999; 319: 1523-1528.
References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 2002 Nov 27; 288 (20): 2, 569-2, 578. Review. PMID: 12444864.

State of the Science on the Effects of Moderate Drinking. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, December 19, 2003. Accessed online: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/ModerateDrinking-03.htm.

Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005. Part D: Science Base, Section 8: Ethanol. United States Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed online: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/report/HTML/D8_Ethanol.htm.

Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. United States Department of Agriculture. Accessed online: http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAs2010-DGACReport.htm.

Micronutrients

DLM: Antioxidant Supplements (Vitamin E, Vitamin C, and Beta-Carotene) 
 

Aryaeian N, Shahram F, Djalali M, Eshragian MR, Djazayeri A, Sarrafnejad A, Naderi N, Chamari M, Fatehi F, Zarei M. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid, vitamin E and their combination on lipid profiles and blood pressure of Iranian adults with active rheumatoid arthritis. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008; 4(6): 1,423-1,432.

Ble-Castillo JL, Carmona-Díaz E, Méndez JD, Larios-Medina FJ, Medina-Santillán R, Cleva-Villanueva G, Díaz-Zagoya JC. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on the metabolic control and oxidative stress in female type 2 diabetics. Biomed Pharmacother. 2005; 59: 290-295.

Boshtam M, Rafiei M, Golshadi ID, Ani M, Shirani Z, Rostamshirzai M. Long-term effects of oral vitamin E supplement in type II diabetic patients. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2005; 75: 341-346.

De Caterina R, Cipollone F, Filardo FP, Zimarino M, Bernini W, Lazzerini G, Bucciarelli T, Falco A, Marchesani P, Muraro R, Mezzetti A, Ciabattoni G. Low-density lipoprotein level reduction by the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A inhibitor simvastatin is accompanied by a related reduction of F2-isoprostane formation in hypercholesterolemic subjects: No further effect of vitamin E. Circulation. 2002 Nov 12; 106 (20): 2,543-2,549.

Leonard SW, Joss JD, Mustacich DJ, Blatt DH, Lee YS, Traber MG. Effects of vitamin E on cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolemic patients receiving statins. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007 Nov 1; 64 (21): 2,257-2,266.

Magliano D, McNeil J, Branley P, Shiel L, Demos L, Wolfe R, Kotsopoulos D, McGrath B. The Melbourne Atherosclerosis Vitamin E Trial (MAVET): A study of high-dose vitamin E in smokers. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2006 Jun; 13(3): 341-347.

Manuel-Y-Keenoy B, Vinckx M, Vertommen J, Van Gaal L, De Leeuw I. Impact of vitamin E supplementation on lipoprotein peroxidation and composition in Type 1 diabetic patients treated with Atorvastatin. Atherosclerosis. 2004 Aug; 175 (2): 369-376.

McGavin JK, Mann JI, Skeaff CM, Chisholm A. Comparison of a vitamin E-rich diet and supplemental vitamin E on measures of vitamin E status and lipoprotein profile. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001; 55: 555-561.

Mustad VA, Smith CA, Ruey PP, Edens NK, DeMichele SJ. Supplementation with three compositionally different tocotrienol supplements does not improve cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 76: 1,237-1,243.

Rezaian GR, Taheri M, Mozaffari BE, Mosleh AA, Ghalambor MA. The salutary effects of antioxidant vitamins on the plasma lipids of healthy middle aged-to-elderly individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Med Liban. 2002, Jan-Apr; 50 (1-2): 10-13.

Salonen RM, Nyyssönen K, Kaikkonen J, Porkkala-Sarataho E, Voutilainen S, Rissanen TH, Tuomainen TP, Valkonen VP, Ristonmaa U, Lakka HM, Vanharanta M, Salonen JT, Poulsen HE; Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention Study. Six-year effect of combined vitamin C and E supplementation on atherosclerotic progression: The Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) Study. Circulation. 2003 Feb 25; 107 (7): 947-953.

Shekelle P, Morton S, Hardy M. Effect of Supplemental Antioxidants Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Coenzyme Q10 for the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 83 (Prepared by Southern California–RAND Evidence Based Practice Center, under Contract No 290-97-0001). AHRQ Publication No. 03-E043. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. July 2003.

Singhal S, Gupta R, Goyle A. Comparison of antioxidant efficacy of vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin A and fruits in coronary heart disease: A controlled trial. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001 Mar; 49: 327-331.

Sutken E, Inal M, Ozdemir F. Effects of vitamin E and gemfibrozil on lipid profiles, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in the elderly and young hyperlipidemic subjects. Saudi Med J. 2006 Apr; 27(4): 453-459.

Buring JE. Aspirin prevents stroke but not MI in women; vitamin E has no effect on CV disease or cancer. Cleve Clin J Med. 2006 Sep; 73 (9): 863-870.

Cook NR, Albert CM, Gaziano M, Zaharris E, MacFadyen J, Danielson E, Buring JE, Manson JE. A randomized factorial trial of vitamins C and E and beta carotene in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in women. Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167: 1,610-1,618.

El-Sohemy. Dietary and adipose tissue gamma-tocopherol and risk of myocardial infarction. Epidemiology. 2002;13:216-223.

Isaksson B, Andersson C, Asplund K, von Bahr C, Borgström B, Boström H, Dahlgren H, Hallerby N, Marké L Å, Ribohn M, Werkö L, Engström-Laurent A, Lingnert H, Åkerlund B. Preventing disease with antioxidants - systematic review (Vol.1 & 2). Summary and Conclusions. Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU), 1997. Full Report Not Available in English.Database searched: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination
ISBN: 91-87890-40-2
Report number: 135/1,2:1 och 2:2.


Lee IM, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, Gordon D, Ridker PM, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, Buring JE. Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: the Women's Health Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005 Jul 6; 294 (1): 56-65.

Lonn E, Bosch J, Yusuf S, Sheridan P, Pogue J, Arnold JM, Ross C, Arnold A, Sleight P, Probstfield J, Dagenais GR; HOPE and HOPE-TOO Trial Investigators. Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005 Mar 16; 293 (11): 1,338-1,347.

Marchioli R, Levantesi G, Macchia A, Marfisi RM, Nicolosi GL, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Valagussa F; GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators. Vitamin E increases the risk of developing heart failure after myocardial infarction: Results from the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. J Cardiovasc Med. 2006 May; 7(5): 347-350.

Sesso HD, Buring JE, Christen WG, Kurth T, Belanger C, MacFadyen J, Bubes V, Manson JE, Glynn RJ, Gaziano JM. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men: The Physicians' Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 Nov 12; 300 (18): 2,123-2,133. Epub 2008 Nov 9.

Tornwall ME, Virtamo J, Korhonen PA, et al. Effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on coronary heart disease during the 6-year post-trial follow-up in the ATBC study. European Heart Journal. 2004; 25: 1,171-1,178.

Vivekananthan DP, Penn MS, Sapp SK, Hsu A, Topol EJ. Use of antioxidant vitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Lancet. 2003;361:2017-2023.

Alkhenizan A, and Hafez K. The role of vitamin E in the prevention of cancer: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Annals of Saudi Medicine. 2007; 27 (6): 409-414.

Berry D, Wathen, JK, and Newell M. Bayesian model averaging in meta-analysis: vitamin E supplementation and mortality. Clinical Trials. 2009; 6: 28-41.

Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C (2008). Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2008; Issue 2. Art. No. CD 007176.

Gerss J, Köpcke W. The questionable association of vitamin E supplementation and mortality--inconsistent results of different meta-analytic approaches. CelI Mol Biol. (Noisy-le-grand). 2009 Feb 25; 55 Suppl: OL 1,111-1,120.

Miller ER, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Jan 4; 142 (1): 37-46. Epub 2004 Nov 10.

Davey PJ, Schulz M, Gliksman M, Dobson M, Aristides M, Stephens NG. Cost-effectiveness of vitamin E therapy in the treatment of patients with angiographically proven coronary narrowing (CHAOS Trial). Am J Cardiology. 1998.

Diaz MN, Frei B, Vita J, Keaney J. Antioxidants and atherosclerotic heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1997; 337: 408-416.

Emmert DH, Kirchner JT. The role of vitamin E in the prevention of heart disease. Arch Fam Med. 1999; 8: 537-542.

Gissi-Prevenzione Investigators. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: Results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Lancet. 1999; 354: 447-455.

Hodis HN, Mack WJ, LaBree L, Cashin OHemphill L, Sevanian A, Johnson R, Azen SP. Serial coronary angiographic evidence that antioxidant vitamin intake reduces progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. JAMA. 1995; 273: 1849-1854.

Kushi LH, Folsom AR, Prineas RJ, Mink PJ, Wu Y, Bostick R. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 1996; 334: 1156-1162.

Lonn E. Effects of vitamin E on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in high-risk patients with diabetes: Results of the HOPE study and the MICRO-HOPE substudy. Diabetes Care. 2002; 25: 1,919-1,927.

Lonn E, Yusuf S, Dzavik V, Doris C, Yi Q, Smith S, Moore-Xos A, Boscl J, Riley W, Teo K. Effects of ramipril and vitamin E on atherosclerosis: the study to evaluate carotid untrasound changes in patients with ramipril and vitamin E (SECURE). Circulation. 2001; 103: 919-925.

Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in men. NEJM. 1993; 328: 1,450-1,456.

Shekelle P, Morton S, Hardy M. Effect of Supplemental Antioxidants Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Coenzyme Q10 for the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 83 (Prepared by Southern California–RAND Evidence Based Practice Center, under Contract No 290-97-0001). AHRQ Publication No. 03-E043. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. July 2003.

Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Willett WC. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. New Engl J Med. 1993; 328: 1444-1449.

Stephens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, Kelly F, Cheeseman K, Mitchinson MJ, Brown MJ. Randomized controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet, 1996; 347: 781-786.

Tribble DL. Antioxidant consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: Emphasis on vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene. Circulation. 1999; 99: 591-595.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 2002 Nov 27; 288 (20): 2, 569-2, 578. Review. PMID: 12444864.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. A Report of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press; Washington DC, 2000. Accessed online: http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?info_center=4&tax_level=4&tax_subject=256&topic_id=1342&level3_id=5141&level4_id=10591.

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Vitamins. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies. Accessed online: http://iom.edu/Activities/Nutrition/SummaryDRIs/~/media/Files/Activity%20Files/Nutrition/DRIs/RDAs%20and%20AIs_Vitamins%20and%20Elements.pdf.

DLM: Homocysteine, Folate, Vitamin B6 or B12

Bautista LE, Arenas IA, Penuela A, Martinez LX. Total plasma homocysteine level and risk of cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Clin Epidemiol. 2002; 55: 882-7.

Fallon UB, Elwood P, Ben-Shiomo Y, Ubbiank JB, Greenwood R, Smith GD. Homocysteine and ischaemic stroke in men: the Caerphilly study. J Epidemiol Community Health 2001;55:91–96

Fallon UB, Ben-Shlomo, Elwood P, Ubbink JB, Davey Smith G. Homocysteine and coronary heart disease in the Caerphilly cohort: a 10 year follow up. Heart. 2001;85:153-158.

Graham IM, Daly LE, Refsum HM, Robinson K, Brattstrom LE, et al. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. JAMA. 1997

Homocysteine Studies Collaboration. Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2002 Oct 23-30; 288 (16): 2,015-2,022.

Lee BJ, Lin PT, Liaw YP, Chang SJ, Cheng CH, Huang YC. Homocysteine and risk of coronary artery disease: Folate is the important determinant of plasma homocysteine concentration. Nutrition. 2003 Jul-Aug; 19 (7-8): 577-583.

Lindeman RD, Romero LJ, Yau CL, Koehler KM, Baumgartner RN, Garry PJ. Serum homocysteine concentrations and their relation to serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and coronary artery disease prevalence in an urban, bi-ethnic community. Ethn Dis. 2003; 13: 178-85.

Morris MS, Jacques PF, Rosenberg IH, Selhub J, Bowman BA, Gunter EW, Wright JD, Johnson CL. Serum total homocysteine concentration is related to self-reported heart attack or stroke history among men and women in the NHANES III. J Nutr. 2000.

Morrison HI, Schaubel D, Desmeules M, Wigle DT.Serum folate and risk of fatal coronary heart disease. JAMA 1996; 275(24):1893-6.

Nygard O, Nordrehaug JE, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Farstad M, Vollset SE. Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med.1997; 337 (4): 230-236.

Bunout D, Garrido A, Suazo M, Kauffman R, Venegas P, de la Maza P, Petermann M, Hirsch S. Effects of supplementation with folic acid and antioxidant vitamins on homocysteine levels and LDL oxidation in coronary patients. Nutr. 2000

Liem A, Reynierse-Buitenwerf GH, Zwinderman AH, Jukema JW, van Veldhuisen DJ. Secondary prevention with folic acid: effects on clinical outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Jun 18; 41 (12): 2,105-2,113.

Mason J, Selhub J. Disease prevention: Broadening the definition of folate nutrition. Nutr in Clin Care. 1999

Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB, Sampson L, Colditz GA, Manson JE, Hennekens C, Stampfer MJ. Folate and vitamin B-6 from diet and supplements in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA. 1998 Feb 4; 279 (5): 359-364.

Schnyder G, Roffi M, Flammer Y, Pin R, Hess OM. Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention: the Swiss Heart study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002 Aug 28; 288 (8): 973-979.

Selhub J, Jacques PF, Wilson PW, Rush D, Rosenberg IH. Vitamin status and intake as primary determinants of homocysteinemia in an elderly population. JAMA. 1993

Toole JF, Malinow MR, Chambless LE, Spence JD, Pettigrew LC, Howard VJ, Sides EG, Wang CH, Stampfer M. Lowering homocysteine in patients with stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: The Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2004; Feb 4; 291: 565-575.

Albert CM, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, Zaharris E, MacFadyen J, Danielson E, Buring JE, Manson JE. Effect of folic acid and B vitamins on risk of cardiovascular events and total mortality among women at high risk for cardiovascular disease: A randomized trial. JAMA. 2008; 299: 2,027-2,036.

Bazzano LA, Reynolds K, Holder KN, He J. Effect of folic acid supplementation on risk of cardiovascular diseases: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 2006 Dec 13; 296 (22): 2,720-2,726. Erratum in: JAMA. 2007 Mar 7; 297 (9): 952.

Bønaa KH, Njølstad I, Ueland PM, Schirmer H, Tverdal A, Steigen T, Wang H, Nordrehaug JE, Arnesen E, Rasmussen K; NORVIT Trial Investigators. Homocysteine lowering and cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354 (15): 1,578-1,588

Ebbing M, Bleie O, Ueland PM, Nordrehaug JE, Nilsen DW, Vollset SE, Refsum H, Pedersen EK, Nygård O. Mortality and cardiovascular events in patients treated with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins after coronary angiography: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008; 300 (7): 795-804.

Ray JG, Kearon C, Yi Q, Sheridan P, Lonn E; Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation 2 (HOPE-2) Investigators. Homocysteine-lowering therapy and risk for venous thromboembolism: A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2007; 146 (11): 761-767.

Al-Delaimy WK, Rexrode KM, Hu FB, Albert CM, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Manson JE. Folate intake and risk of stroke among women. Stroke. 2004; 35(6):1259-63.

Miller ER 3rd, Juraschek S, Pastor-Barriuso R, Bazzano LA, Appel LJ, Guallar E. Meta-analysis of folic acid supplementation trials on risk of cardiovascular disease and risk interaction with baseline homocysteine levels. Am J Cardiol 2010. Abstracted prior to publication.

Saposnik G, Ray JG, Sheridan P, McQueen M, Lonn E; Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation 2 Investigators. Homocysteine-lowering therapy and stroke risk, severity, and disability: Additional findings from the HOPE 2 trial. Stroke. 2009; 40 (4): 1,365-1,372.

Virtanen JK, Voutilainen S, Happonen P, Alfthan G, Kaikkonen J, Mursu J, Rissanen TH, Kaplan GA, Korhonen MJ, Sivenius J, Salonen JT. Serum homocysteine, folate and risk of stroke: Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2005; 12(4):369-375.

Wang X, Qin X, Demirtas H, Li J, Mao G, Huo Y, Sun N, Liu L, Xu X. Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in stroke prevention: A meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007; 369 (9,576): 1,876-1,882.

Weng LC, Yeh WT, Bai CH, Chen HJ, Chuang SY, Chang HY, Lin BF, Chen KJ, Pan WH. Is ischemic stroke risk related to folate status or other nutrients correlated with folate intake. Stroke. 2008. 39:3152-8.

Yang LK, Wong KC, Wu MY, Liao SL, Kuo CS, Huang RF. Correlations between folate, B12, homocysteine levels, and radiological markers of neuropathology in elderly post-stroke patients. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Jun;26(3):272-8

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 2002 Nov 27; 288 (20): 2, 569-2, 578. Review. PMID: 12444864.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. A Report of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press; Washington DC, 1998. Accessed online:
http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?info_center=4&tax_level=4&tax_subject=256&topic_id=1342&level3_id=5141&level4_id=10589.

 

DLM: Coenzyme Q10

Shekelle P, Morton S, Hardy M. Effect of Supplemental Antioxidants Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Coenzyme Q10 for the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 83 (Prepared by Southern California–RAND Evidence Based Practice Center, under Contract No 290-97-0001). AHRQ Publication No. 03-E043. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. July 2003.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Hamilton SJ, Chew GT, Watts GF. Coenzyme Q10 improves endothelial dysfunction in statin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2009 May; 32 (5): 810-812. Epub 2009 Feb 19. PMID: 19228872.Kuettner A, Pieper A, Koch J, Enzmann F, Schroeder S. Influence of coenzyme Q(10) and cerivastatin on the flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: results of the ENDOTACT study. Int J Cardiol. 2005 Feb 28; 98 (3): 413-419. PMID: 15708173.

Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen AM. Supplemental ubiquinol in patients with advanced congestive heart failure. Biofactors. 2008; 32 (1-4): 119-128. PMID: 19096107.

Niklowitz P, Sonnenschein A, Janetzky B, Andler W, Menke T.Enrichment of coenzyme Q10 in plasma and blood cells: defense against oxidative damage. Int J Biol Sci. 2007 Apr 5;3 (4): 257-262. PMID: 17479158.

Shah SA, Sander S, Cios D, Lipeika J, Kluger J, White CM. Electrocardiographic and hemodynamic effects of coenzyme Q10 in healthy individuals: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 Mar; 41 (3): 420-425. Epub 2007 Mar 6. PMID: 17341532.

Silver MA, Langsjoen PH, Szabo S, Patil H, Zelinger A. Effect of atorvastatin on left ventricular diastolic function and ability of coenzyme Q10 to reverse that dysfunction. Am J Cardiol. 2004 Nov 15; 94 (10): 1, 306-1, 310. PMID: 15541254.

Behavior / Physical Activity

DLM: Physical Activity

Angotti CM, Levine MS. Review of 5 years of a combined dietary and physical fitness intervention for control of serum cholesterol. JADA 1994: 634-638.

Fagard, R.H. Exercise characteristics and the blood pressure response to dynamic physical training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 6, Suppl., pp. S484-S492, 2001.

Katzmarzyk PT, Leon AS, et al. Targeting the Metabolic Syndrome with Exercise: Evidence from the HERITAGE Family Study. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 35:1703-1709, 2003.

Leon AS, Sanchez OA. Response of blood lipids to exercise training alone or combined with dietary intervention. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2001.

Stefanick ML, Mackey S, Sheehan MS, Ellsworth N, Haskell W, Wood PD. Diet and Exercise for elevated risk trial. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:12-20.

Blair SN, Kampert JB, Kohl HW 3rd, Barlow CE, Macera CA, Paffenbarger RS Jr, Gibbons LW. Influences of cardiorespiratory fitness and other precursors on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in men and women. JAMA. 1996;276:205-210

Blair SN, Kohl HW, Barlow CE, Paffenbarger RS, Gibbons LW, Macer CA. Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. JAMA. 1995;273:1093-1098.

Jolliffe JA, Rees K, Taylor RS, Thompson D, Oldridge N, Ebrahim S. Exercise-based rehabilitation for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001800. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001800.

Lakka TA, Venalainen JM, Rauramaa R, Salonen R, Tumilehto J, Salonen JT. Relation of leisure-time physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness to the risk of acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1994; 330: 1,549-1,554.

Lemaitre RN, Heckbert SR, Psaty BM, Siscovick DS. Leisure-time physical activity and the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction in postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:2302-2.

Lemaitre RN, Siscovick DS, Raghunathan TE, Weinmann S, Arbogast P, Lin DY. Leisure-time physical activity and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:686-690.

Manson JE, Greenland P, et al. Walking Compared with Vigorous Exercise for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Women. N Engl J Med, Vol. 347, No. 10. 2002.

Sesso HD, Paffenbarger RS. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in men: The Harvard Alumni Study. Circulation. 2000;975-980.

Tanasescu M, Leitzmann MF, Rimm E, et al. Exercise Type and Intensity in Relation to Coronary Heart Disease in Men. JAMA. 2002 October 23-30; 288 (16): 1994-2000.

Thompson PD et. al. Circulation. 2003;107:3109-3116. AHA Scientific Statement. Exercise and Physical Activity in the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: A Statement From the Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention) and the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and metabloism (Subcommittee on Physical Activity).

Wei M, Kampert JB, Barlow CE, Nichaman MZ, Gibbons LW, Paffenbarger RS, Blair SN. Relationship between low cardiorespiratory fitness and mortality in normal-weight, overweight, and obese men. JAMA. 1999;282:1547-1553.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, Macera CA, Heath GW, Thompson PD, Bauman A; American College of Sports Medicine; American Heart Association. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007 Aug 28; 116 (9): 1, 081-1, 093. Epub 2007 Aug 1. PMID: 17671237.

2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. US Department of Health and Human Services. ODPHP Publication No. U0036; October 2008. Accessed online: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/pdf/paguide.pdf.

Physical Activity for Everyone. Glossary of Terms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed online: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/terms/index.htm.

Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans. United States Department of Agriculture. Accessed online: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/report/HTML/D2_Energy.htm#td221.

Corollary Health Issues

DLM: Hypertension

Appel LJ, Espeland MA, Easter L, Wilson AC, Folmar S, Lacy CR. Effects of reduced sodium intake on hypertension control in older individuals: results from the Trial of Nonpharmacologic Interventions in the Elderly (TONE). Arch Intern Med. 2001 Mar 12; 161 (5): 685-693.

Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, Vollmer WM, Svetkey LP, Sacks FM, Bray GA, Vogt TM, Cutler JA, Windhauser MM, Lin PH, Karanja N. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1997 Apr 17; 336(16): 1,117-1,124.

Appel LJ, Champagne CM, Harsha DW, Cooper LS, Obarzanek E, Elmer PJ, Stevens VJ, Vollmer WM, Lin PH, Svetkey LP, Stedman SW, Young DR; Writing Group of the PREMIER Collaborative Research Group. Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on blood pressure control: Main results of the PREMIER Clinical Trial. JAMA 2003 Apr 23-30; 289 (16): 2,083-2,093.

Miller ER 3rd, Erlinger TP, Young DR, Jehn M, Charleston J, Rhodes, D, Wasan SK, Appel LJ. Results of the Diet, Exercise and Weight Loss Intervention Trial (DEW-IT). Hypertension. 2002 Nov; 40 (5): 612-618.

Obarzanek E, Sacks FM, Vollmer WM, Bray GA, Miller ER 3rd, Lin PH, Karanja NM, Most-Windhauser MM, Moore TJ, Swain JF, Bales CW, Proschan MA; DASH Research Group. Effects on blood lipids of a blood pressure-lowering diet: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001. 74(1):80-9.

Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D, Obarzanek E, Conlin PR, Miller ER 3rd, Simons-Morton DG, Karanja N, Lin PH. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet. New England Journal of Medicine. 2001 Jan 4; 344 (1): 3-10.

Stevens FJ, Obarzanek E, Cook NR, Lee IM, Appel LJ, West DS, Milas NC, Mattfeldt-beman M, Belden L, Bragg C, Millstone M, Raczynski, J, Brwer A, Singh B, Cohen J. Long-term weight loss and changes in blood pressure: Results of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, Phase II. Ann Intern Med. 2001; 134: 1-11.

Bray GA, Vollmer WM, Sacks FM, Obarzanek E, Svetkey LP, Appel LJ. A further subgroup analysis of the effects of the DASH diet and three dietary sodium levels on blood pressure: Results of the DASH-sodium trial. AM J Cardiol. 204 Jul 15; 94(2): 222-227.

Cheung BMY, Ho SPC, Cheung AHK, Lau CP. Diastolic blood pressure is related to urinary sodium excretion in hypertensive Chinese patients. Q J Med. 2000; 93: 163-168.

Coruzzi P, Brambilla L, Brambilla V, Gualerzi M, Rossi M, Parati G, Di Rienzo M, Tadonio J, Novarini A. Potassium depletion and salt sensitivity in essential hypertension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jun; 86(6): 2,857-2,862.

Espeland MA, Kumanyika S, Yunis C, Zheng B, Brown WM, Jackson S, Wilson AC, Bahnson J, Electrolyte intake and nonpharmacologic blood pressure control. Ann Epidemiol. 2002; 12: 587-595.

Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE. Blood pressure response to changes in sodium and potassium intake: a metaregression analysis of randomised trials. Journal of Human Hypertension, 2003; 17: 471-480.

Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE. Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations. Eur J Public Health. 2004; 14 (3): 235-239.

He FJ, MacGregor GA. Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004; (1): CD004937. PMID: 15266549

He FJ, MacGregor GA. How far should salt intake be reduced? Hypertension, 2003; 42: 1,093-1,099.

He FJ, Markandu ND, MacGregor GA. Importance of the renin system for determining blood pressure fall with acute salt restriction in hypertensive and normotensive whites. Hypertension. 2001 Sep; 38 (3): 321-325.

Hu G, Tian H. A comparison of dietary and non-dietary factors of hypertension and normal blood pressure in a Chinese population. Journal of Human Hypertension, 2001; 15: 487-493.

Jürgens G, Graudal NA. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterols, and triglyceride. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003; (1): CD004022. Review. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004; (1): CD004022

Liu L, Liu L, Ding Y, Huang Z, He B, Sun S, Zhao G, Zhang H, Miki T, Mizushima S, Ikeda K, Nara Y, Yamori Y. Ethnic and environmental differences in various markers of dietary intake and blood pressure among Chinese Han and three other minority peoples of China: results from the WHO Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison (CARDIAC) Study. Hypertens Res. 2001; 24 (3): 315-322.

Radhika G, Sathya RM, Sudha V, et al. Dietary salt intake and hypertension in an urban south Indian population. J Assoc Physicians India. 2007; 55: 405-411.

Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D, Obarzanek E, Conlin PR, Miller III ER, Simons-Morton DG, Karanja N, Lin PH. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet. N Engl J Med. 2001; 344:3-10.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, Macera CA, Heath GW, Thompson PD, Bauman A; American College of Sports Medicine; American Heart Association. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007 Aug 28; 116 (9): 1, 081-1, 093. Epub 2007 Aug 1. PMID: 17671237.

Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 2002 Nov 27; 288 (20): 2, 569-2, 578. Review. PMID: 12444864.

2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. US Department of Health and Human Services. ODPHP Publication No. U0036; October 2008. Accessed online: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/pdf/paguide.pdf.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. National Academy of Sciences. Washington DC, 2004. Accessed online: http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?info_center=4&tax_level=4&tax_subject=256&topic_id=1342&level3_id=5141&level4_id=10592.

DLM: Metabolic Syndrome

Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III)National Cholesterol Education Program, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Insitutes of Health, NIH Publication No. 02-5215, September 2002

Ford ES, Mokdad AH, Giles WH, Brown DW. The metabolic syndrome and antioxidant concentrations: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes. 2003 Sep; 52 (9): 2,346-2,352.

Grundy SM, Brewer HB, Cleeman JI, Smith SC, Lenfant C, for the Conference Participants. Definition of the Metabolic Syndrome, Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association Conference on Scientific Issues Related to Definition. Circulation. 2004;109:433-438.

Grundy SM, Hansen B et.al. Clinical Management of Metabolic Syndrome: Report of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Diabetes Association Conference on scientific Issues Related to Management. Circulation. 2004;109:551-556.

Irwin ML, Ainsworth BE, Mayer-Davis EJ, Addy CL, Pate RR, Durstine JL.Physical activity and the metabolic syndrome in a tri-ethnic sample of women. Obes Res. 2002 Oct; 10 (10): 1,030-1,037.

Lakka TA, Laaksonen DE, Lakka HM, Männikkö N, Niskanen LK, Rauramaa R, Salonen JT. Sedentary lifestyle, poor cardiorespiratory fitness, and the metabolic syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Aug; 35 (8): 1,279-1,286.

Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Chrysohoou C, Skoumas J, Tousoulis D, Toutouza M, Toutouzas P, Stefanadis C. Impact of lifestyle habits on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Greek adults from the ATTICA study. Am Heart J. 2004 Jan; 147 (1): 106-112.

Pitsavos C, Panagiotakos DB, Chrysohoou C, Papaioannou I, Papadimitriou L, Tousoulis D, Stefanadis C, Toutouzas P. The adoption of Mediterranean diet attenuates the development of acute coronary syndromes in people with the metabolic syndrome. Nutr J. 2003 Mar 19; 2: 1.

Case CC, Jones PH, Nelson K, O'Brian Smith E, Ballantyne CM. Impact of weight loss on the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2002 Nov; 4 (6): 407-414.

Katzmarzyk PT, Leon AS, et al. Targeting the Metabolic Syndrome with Exercise: Evidence from the HERITAGE Family Study. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 35:1703-1709, 2003.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

ATP III Full Report and Executive Summary. National Cholesterol Education Program.Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Choleterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). 2004. Accessed December 15, 2010: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/ (pending the expected release of ATP IV in Fall 2011).

Grundy SM. Cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors: how can we improve outcomes in the high-risk patient? Am J Med. 2007 Sep; 120(9 Suppl 1): S3-S8; discussion S9. Review. PMID: 17720359.

Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 2002 Nov 27; 288 (20): 2, 569-2, 578. Review. PMID: 12444864.

Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, Macera CA, Heath GW, Thompson PD, Bauman A; American College of Sports Medicine; American Heart Association.Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007 Aug 28; 116 (9): 1, 081-1, 093. Epub 2007 Aug 1. PMID: 17671237 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. US Department of Health and Human Services. ODPHP Publication No. U0036; October 2008. Accessed online: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/pdf/paguide.pdf.

Ilanne-Parikka P, Eriksson JG, Lindström J, Peltonen M, Aunola S, Hämäläinen H, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Valle TT, Lahtela J, Uusitupa M, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group. Effect of lifestyle intervention on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Diabetes Care. 2008 Apr; 31 (4): 805-807. Epub 2008. Jan 9. PMID: 18184907.

Jiamsripong P, Mookadam M, Alharthi MS, Khandheria BK, Mookadam F. The metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease: part 2. Prev Cardiol. 2008 Fall; 11 (4): 223-229. Review. PMID: 19476575.

Kemmler W, Von Stengel S, Engelke K, KalenderWA. Exercise decreases the risk of metabolic syndrome in elderly females. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Feb; 41 (2): 297-305. PMID: 19127197.

Mendoza JA, Drewnowski A, Christakis DA. Dietary energy density is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults. Diabetes Care. 2007 Apr; 30 (4): 974-979. Epub 2007 Jan 17. PMID: 17229942.

Muzio F, Mondazzi L, Harris WS, Sommariva D, Branchi A. Effects of moderate variations in the macronutrient content of the diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in obese patients with the metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct; 86 (4): 946-951. PMID: 17921369.

Phelan S, Wadden TA, Berkowitz RI, Sarwer DB, Womble LG, Cato RK, Rothman R. Impact of weight loss on the metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Sep; 31 (9): 1, 442-1, 448. Epub 2007 Mar 13. PMID: 17356528. 

 

 

DLM: Triglycerides and Macronutrients

Ellingsen I, Hjermann I, Abdelnoor M, Hjerkinn EM, Tonstad S. Dietary and antismoking advice and ischemic heart disease mortality in men with normal or high fasting triacylglycerol concentrations: a 23-y follow-up study, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 78:935-40, 2003.

Jacobs B, De Angelis-Schierbaum G, Egert S, Assmann G, Kratz M. Individual serum triglyceride responses to high-fat and low-fat diets differ in men with modest and severe hypertriglyceridemia, J. Nutr., 134: 1400-1405, 2004.

Pieke B, von Eckardstein A, Gulbahce E, Chirazi A, Schulte H, Assmann G, Wahrburg U. Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia by two diets rich either in unsaturated fatty acids or in carbohydrates: effects on lipoprotein subclasses, lipolytic enzymes, lipid transfer proteins, insulin and leptin, Int. J. Obesity 24: 1286-1296, 2000.

Zoppo A, Maggi FM, Catapano AL. A successful dietary treatment fails to normalize plasma triglyceride postprandial response in type IV patients, Atherosclerosis, 146:19-23, 1999.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

ATP III Full Report and Executive Summary. National Cholesterol Education Program.Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Choleterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). 2004. Accessed December 15, 2010: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/ (pending the expected release of ATP IV in Fall 2011).

Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, Macera CA, Heath GW, Thompson PD, Bauman A.American College of Sports Medicine; American Heart Association. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007 Aug 28;116 (9):1, 081-1, 093. Epub 2007 Aug 1. PMID: 17671237.

Nelson ME, Rejeski WJ, Blair SN, Duncan PW, Judge JO, King AC, Macera CA, Castaneda-Sceppa C; American College of Sports Medicine; American Heart Association. Physical activity and public health in older adults: recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007 Aug 28; 116 (9): 1, 094-1, 105. Epub 2007 Aug 1. PMID: 17671236.

DLM: Triglycerides and Omega 3 Fatty Acid Supplements

Calabresi L, Donati D, Pazzucconi F, Sirtori CF, Franceschini G. Omacor in familial combined hyperlipidemia: effects on lipids and low density lipoprotein subclasses. Atherosclerosis. 2000;148:387-396.

Durrington PR, Bhatnagar D, Mackness MI, Morgan J, Julier K, Khan MA, France M. An omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acide concentrate administered for one year decreased triglycerides in simvastatin treated patients with coronary heart disease and persisting hypertriglyceridaemia. Heart. 2001;85:544-548.

Harris WS, Ginsberg HN, Arunakul N, Shachter NS, Windsor SL, Adams M, Berglund L, Osmundsen K. Safety and efficacy of Omacor in severe hypertriglyceridemia. J Cardiovascular Risk. 1997;r:385-391.

Hong H, Xu Z, Pang B, Cui L, Wei Y, Guo W, Mao Y, Yang X. Effects of simvastatin combined with omega-3 fatty acids on high sensitive C-reactive protein, lipidemia, and fibrinolysis in patients with mixed dyslipidemia. Chin Med Sci J. 2004;19:145-149.

Maki K, Van Elswyk ME, McCarthy D, Seeley MA, Veith PE, Hess SP, Ingram KA, Halvorson JJ, Calaguas EM, Davidson MH. Lipid Responses in Mildly Hypertriglyceridemic Men and Women to Consumption of Docosahexaenoic Acid- Enriched Eggs. Int. J. Vitam, Nutr. Res. 2003; 73(5), 357-368.

Nordøy A, Hansen JB, Brox J, Svensson B. Effects of atorvastatin and omega-3 fatty acids on LDL subfractions and postprandial hyperlipemia in patients with combined hyperlipemia. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2001;11:7-16.

Otto C, Ritter MM, Soennichsen AC, Schwandt P, Richter WO. Effects of n-3 fatty acids and fenofibrate on lipid and hemorrheological parameters in familial dysbetalipoproteinemia and familial hypertriglyceridemia. Metabolism. 1996;45:1305-1311.

Silva JM, Souza I, Silva R, Tavares P, Teizeira F, Silva PS. The triglceride lovering effect of fish oils is affected by fish consumption. Int J of Caridiology 57 (1996)75-80.

Sirtori CR, Paoletti R, Mancini M, Crepaldi G, Manzato E, Rivellese A, Pamparana, F, Stragliotto E on behalf ot eh The Italian Fish Oil Multicenter Study. n-3 Fatty acids do not lead to an increased diabertic rish in patients with hyperlipidemia and abnormal glucose tolerance. Am J Clin Nutr 1997:65:1874-81.

Sirtori CR, Crepaldi G, Manzato E, Mancini M, Rivellese A, Paoletti R, Pazzucconi F, Pamparana F, Stragliotto. One-year treatment with ethyl esters of n-3 fatty acids in patients with hypertriglyceridemia and glucose intolerance Reduced triglyceridemia, total cholesterol and increased HDL-C without glycemic alterations. Atherosclerosis 1998;137: 419-427.

Wohl DA, Tien HC, Busby M, Cunningham C, MacIntosh B, Napravnik S, Danan E, Donovan K, Hossenipour M, Simpson RJ. Randomized study of the safety and efficacy of fish oil (omega-3 fatty acid) supplementation with dietary and exercise counseling for the treatment of antiretroviral therapy-associated hypertriglyeridemia. Clinical Infectious Disease. 2005;41:1498-1504.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001; 285: 2, 486-2, 497 (pending the expected release of ATP IV in Fall 2011).

Harris WS. Expert opinion: omega-3 fatty acids and bleeding-cause for concern? Am J Cardiol. 2007 Mar 19; 99 (6A): 44C-46C. Epub 2006 Nov 29. Review.

Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ. American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease [published correction appears in Circulation 2003;107:512]. Circulation. 2002;106: 2, 747-2, 757.

McKenney, J.M. and Sica, D. Prescription omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2007; 64: 595-605.

Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation

DLM: Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation

Baik I, Acheria A, Rimm EB, Govannucci E, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Adiposity and mortality in men. Am J Epid. 2000; 152: 264-271.

Calle, EE, Thun MJ, Petrelli JM, Rodriguez C, Heath CW. Body-mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341: 1,097-1,105.

Cho E, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Solomon CG, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Willett WC, Hu FB. A prospective study of obesity and risk of coronary heart disease among diabetic women. Diabetes Care 2002; 25 (7): 1,142-1,148.

Denke MA, Sempos CT, Grundy SM. Excess body weight. An underrecognized contributor to high blood cholesterol levels in white American men. Arch Int Med. 1993; 153: 1,093-1,103.

Ellekjaer H, Holmen J, Vatten L. Blood pressure, smoking and body mass in relation to mortality from stroke and coronary heart disease in the elderly. A 10-year follow-up in Norway. Blood Pressure 2001; 10: 156-163.

Folsom AR, Kaye SA, Sellers TA, Hong CP, Cerhan JR, Potter JE, Prineas RJ. Body fat distribution and 5-year risk of death in older women. JAMA. 1993;269:483-487.

Iwao S, Iwai N, Muller DC, Elahi D, Shimokata H, Andres R. Effect of aging on the relationship between multiple risk factors and waist circumference. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000; 48: 788-794.

Jonsson S, Hedblad B, Engstrom G, Nilsson P, Berglund G, Janzon L. Influence of obesity on cardiovascular risk. Twenty-three-year follow-up of 22,025 men from an urban Swedish population. International Journal of Obesity. 2002; 26: 1,046-1,053.

Lakka HM, Lakka TA, Tuomilehto J, Salonen JT. Abdominal obesity is associated with increased risk of acute coronary events in men. European Heart Journal 2002;23:706-713.

Newton KM, LaCroiz AZ. Association of body mass index with reinfarction and survival after first myocardial infarction in women. J Women’s Health. 1996;5:433-444.

Rexrode KM, Buring JE, Manson JE. Abdominal and total adiposity and risk of coronary heart disease in men. International Journal of Obesity. 2001; 25: 1,047-1,056.

Rexrode KM, Carey VJ, Hennekens CH, Walters EE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Manson JE. Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women. JAMA. 1998; 280: 1,843-1,848.

Song Y, Sung J. Body mass index and mortality: A twelve year prospective study in korea. Epidemiology 2001; 12 (2): 173-179.

Stevens J, Cai J, Pamuk E, Williamson D, Thun M, Wood J. The effect of age on the association between body-mass index and mortality. N Engl J Med. 1998; 338 (1): 1-7.

Welborn TA, Dhaliwal SS, Bennett SA. Waist-hip ratio is the dominant risk factor predicting cardiovascular death in Australia. MJA 2003;179: 580-585.

Zhou B, Wu Y, Yang J, Li Y, Zhang H, Zhao L. Overweight is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in Chinese populations. Obes Rev. 2002 Aug; 3 (3): 147-156.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. In: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. The National Academies Press; 2005: 481-485. Accessed online: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490.

ATP III Full Report and Executive Summary. National Cholesterol Education Program. Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Choleterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). 2004. Accessed December 15, 2010: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/ (pending the expected release of ATP IV in Fall 2011).

Monsen, ER and Van Horn, L. (Editors). Research: Successful Approaches, 3rd Edition. Chapter 14: Dietary Assessment and Validation. American Dietetic Association. 2008.

 

 

Triglycerides