DLM: Diet Composition (2010)
Macronutrients: Diet Composition and Disorders of Lipid Metabolism
Under isocaloric conditions, what is the impact of changing the quality and composition of macronutrient (carbohydrates, proteins and dietary fat) on LDL-cholesterol levels in normolipidimic and hyperlipidemic individuals?
Replacing saturated fat intake with either unsaturated fat or carbohydrates, principally contributed by fruits, vegetables and grains, is effective in reducing LDL-cholesterol. A diet rich in monounsaturated fat may be effective in also reducing serum triglycerides.
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
Evidence Summary: Under isocaloric conditions, what is the impact of changing the quality and composition of macronutrient (carbohydrates, proteins and dietary fat) on LDL-cholesterol levels in normolipidimic and hyperlipidemic individuals?
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- Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, Obarzanek E, Swain JF, Miller ER, Conlin PR, Erlinger TP, Rosner BA, Laranjo NM, Charleston J, McCarron P, Bishop LM for the OmniHeart Collaborative Research Group. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA. 2005; 294: 2,455-2,464.
- Berglund L, Lefevre M, Ginsberg HN, Kris-Etherton PM, Elmer PJ, Stewart PW, Ershow A, Pearson TA, Dennis BH, Roheim PS, Ramakrishnan R, Reed R, Stewart K, Phillips KM; DELTA Investigators. Comparison of monounsaturated fat with carbohydrates as a replacement for saturated fat in subjects with a high metabolic risk profile: studies in the fasting and postprandial states. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec; 86 (6): 1,611-1,620
- Ginsberg HN, Kris-Etherton P, Dennis B, Elmer PJ, Ershow A, Lefevre M, Pearson T, Roheim P, Ramakrishnan R, Reed R, Stewart K, Stewart P, Phillips K, Anderson N. The effects of reducing saturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy subjects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998; 18: 441-449.
- Harsha D, Sacks F, Obarzanek E, Svetkey L, Lin P, Gray G, Aickin M, Conlin P, Miller E, Appel L. Effect of dietary sodium intake on blood lipids: Results from the DASH-Sodium Trial. Hypertension. 2004; 43[part 2]: 393-398.
- Obarzanek E, Sacks FM, Vollmer WM, Bray GA, Miller ER 3rd, Lin PH, Karanja NM, Most-Windhauser MM, Moore TJ, Swain JF, Bales CW, Proschan MA; DASH Research Group. Effects on blood lipids of a blood pressure-lowering diet: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001. 74(1):80-9.
- Paniagua JA, de la Sacristana AG, Sanchez E, Romero I, Vidal-Puig A, Berral FJ, Escribano A, Moyano MJ, Perez-Martinez P, Lopez-Miranda J, Perez-Jimenez F. A MUFA-rich diet improves postprandial glucose, lipid and GLP-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 2007; 26(5): 434-44.
- Pérez-Jiménez F, López-Miranda J, Pinillos MD, Gómez P, Paz-Rojas E, Montilla P, Marín C, Velasco MJ, Blanco-Molina A, Jiménez Perepérez JA, Ordovás JM. A Mediterranean and a high-carbohydrate diet improve glucose metabolism in healthy young persons. Diabetologia. 2001 Nov; 44(11): 2,038-2,043.
Search Plan and Results: DLM: Diet Composition (CHO, Pro, Fats) 2010